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JLPT N2 Vocabulary List

This is the list of words you need to study for the Japanese Language Proficiency Test Level N2.

暴れる (abareru): to act violently; to rage; to struggle; to be riotous​

溢れる (afureru): to overflow; to brim over; to flood

愛着 (aichaku): attachment; love; covetous affection​

合間 (aima): interval; break; pause; spare moment​

曖昧 (aimai): vague; ambiguous; unclear​

愛らしい (airashii): pretty; charming; lovely; adorable

愛社 (aisha): devotion to one’s company​

相性 (aishou): affinity; compatibility​

相次いで (aitsuide): one after the other; successively​

愛用 (aiyou): favorite; habitually used​

味付け (ajitsuke): seasoning; flavor​

赤字 (akaji): (being in) the red; deficit; red letter; red writing​; corrections (by a teacher or proofreader) written in red​

飽き (aki): weariness; boredom; tedium; tiresomeness​

空き地 (akichi): vacant land; unoccupied ground; empty lot​

諦め (akirame): resignation; acceptance; consolation​

悪化 (akka): (suffer) deterioration; growing worse; aggravation; degeneration; corruption​

憧れ (akogare): yearning; longing; aspiration; adoration; admiration​

憧れる (akogareru): to long for; to yearn after; to admire; to be attracted by

悪影響 (akueikyou): bad influence; negative influence​

悪意 (akui): ill will; spite; evil intention; malice​; bad meaning​

悪条件 (akujouken): unfavorable conditions; unfavourable conditions​

雨水 (amamizu/usui): rain water

甘やかす (amayakasu): to pamper; to spoil​

案外 (angai): unexpectedly; surprisingly​; unexpected; unanticipated; unforeseen; surprising

安易 (an’i): easy; simple​; easygoing; lighthearted; simplistic; irresponsible; careless; quick (to do)​

安価 (anka): low-priced; cheap; inexpensive​

仰向け (aomuke): face up

荒い (arai): rough; wild; violent; rude; coarse; harsh; fierce; heavy (e.g. breathing)​; immoderate; extravagant; reckless​

洗い出す (araidasu): to reveal something by washing the surface​; to bring to light; to reveal by investigation​

予め (arakajime): beforehand; in advance; previously​

争う (arasou): to compete; to contest; to contend​; to quarrel; to argue; to dispute; to be at variance; to oppose​

改める (aratameru): to change; to alter; to revise; to replace; to reform; to correct; to mend; to improve​

荒れる (areru): to be stormy; to be rough​; to be ruined; to fall into ruin​; to be in a bad temper; to lose one’s temper​

焦り (aseri): impatience

焦る (aseru): to be in a hurry; to be impatient; to be flustered; to lose one’s presence of mind; to be surprised​

足を運ぶ (ashi o hakobu): to go; to come; to turn out (at a meeting, event, etc.); to show up; to make your way to​

圧勝 (asshou): complete victory​

宛 (ate): addressed to

当てはまる (atehamaru): to apply (a rule); to be applicable; to come under (a category); to fulfill; to hold true​

後回し (atomawashi): putting off; postponing​

後戻り (atomodori): going backward; turning back; backtracking; doubling back​; retrogression; relapse; returning to a bad state​

あっという間 (attoiuma): a blink of time

厚かましい (atsukamashii): impudent; shameless; brazen​

慌ただしい (awatadashii): busy; hurried; confused; flurried

怪しい (ayashii): suspicious; dubious; doubtful; dodgy; suspicious (referring to a potential amorous relation); dangerous (e.g. financial situation); ominous (e.g. weather); strange; shady; fishy​

歩み寄る (ayumiyoru): to compromise; to meet halfway​; to step up to; to walk up to; to approach​

歩む (ayumu): to walk; to go on foot​

鮮やか (azayaka): vivid; bright; brilliant; clear; fresh; vibrant​; skillful; brilliant; beautiful; fine; excellent​

倍増 (baizou): double

離れ (banare): (suffix) separation from; loss of interest in; independence of; distancing (of oneself) from; disillusionment with; alienation from (something)

ばっさり: with a single stroke; resolutely; drastically; completely​

別荘 (bessou): holiday house; vacation home; villa; prison; jail

美術 (bijutsu): art; fine arts​

敏感 (binkan): sensitive; alert; aware; susceptible​

びっしょり: wet through; drenched​

美容院 (biyouin): beauty parlor; beauty salon; hairdressing salon​

募金 (bokin): fund-raising; collection of funds​

牧場 (bokujou): farm (livestock); ranch (US); pasture land; meadow; grazing land​

膨大 (boudai): huge; vast; enormous; colossal; extensive; large​; swelling; expansion

防犯 (bouhan): prevention of crime​

防災 (bousai): prevention of damage resulting from a natural disaster; protection against disaster​

部員 (buin): staff; member (club, society, etc.)​

部下 (buka): subordinate person​

ぶかぶか: too large (clothing); baggy; loose-fitting

分別 (bunbetsu): separation (e.g. of rubbish when recycling); classification; discrimination; division; distinction​

分解 (bunkai): disassembly; dismantling; disaggregating; analysis; disintegrating; decomposing; degrading​

分割 (bunkatsu): partition; division; separation; segmenting; splitting​

文系 (bunkei): humanities, social sciences, and fine arts; liberal arts

文献 (bunken): literature; books (reference); document​

文面 (bunmen): content of a letter​

分配 (bunpai): division; splitting; sharing; distribution; dissemination; allocation​

分量 (bunryou): amount; quantity​

分担 (buntan): taking on one’s share (e.g. of work); dividing (work, expenses, etc.) between; apportionment; allotment; allocation; assignment​

物資 (busshi): goods; materials; commodities; resources; supplies

着々と (chakuchaku to): steadily

着実 (chakujitsu): steady; sound; solid; reliable; trustworthy​

縮める (chidjimeru): to shorten; to reduce; to condense; to shrink​; to make (one’s body) smaller; to draw in (one’s legs); to duck (one’s head)​

縮む (chidjimu): to shrink; to contract; to diminish (in size)​

近々 (chikadjika): soon; nearness; before long​

近づく (chikazuku): to approach; to draw near; to get close​; to get acquainted with; to get closer to; to get to know​

蓄積 (chikuseki): accumulation; accumulate; store​

散らかす (chirakasu): to scatter around; to leave untidy​

地帯 (chitai): area; zone; belt (of land)​

知的 (chiteki): intellectual

地点 (chiten): site; point on a map; spot​

地球温暖化 (chikyuuondanka): global warming​

直結 (chokketsu): direct connection; direct link​

直後 (chokugo): immediately following​

直立 (chokuritsu): standing upright; standing straight

直前 (chokuzen): just before​

長編 (chouhen): long (e.g. novel, film)​

長方形 (chouhoukei): rectangle; oblong​

長期間 (choukikan): long period (of time)​

彫刻 (choukoku): carving; engraving; sculpture​

彫刻家 (choukokuka): engraver; carver; sculptor​

長距離 (choukyori): long distance; long haul​

調味料 (choumiryou): seasoning; flavoring; flavouring; condiment​

調理 (chouri): cooking; food preparation​

調整 (chousei): adjustment; regulation; coordination; reconciliation; tuning; fixing; tailoring​

調節 (chousetsu): regulation; adjustment; control​

聴衆 (choushuu): audience; attendance; hearers​

注意点 (chuuiten): important point; point to make note of​

抽象 (chuushou): abstraction

中断 (chuudan): interruption; suspension; break​

注意深い (chuuibukai): careful

忠実 (chuujitsu): faithful; devoted; loyal; honest; true​

中旬 (chuujun): middle of a month; second third of a month; 11th to 20th day of a month​

中華 (chuuka): Chinese food

中継 (chuukei): relay; relay broadcasting

駐輪所 (chuurinjo): bicycle parking place​

抽選 (chuusen): lottery; raffle; drawing (of lots)​

大学院 (daigakuin): graduate school

大学祭 (daigakusai): university festival; rag day

台無し (dainashi): mess; spoiled; spoilt; (come to) nothing; ruin​

題名 (daimei): title

段取り (dandori): programme; program; plans; arrangements​

段階 (dankai): grade; level; stage; class; phase; steps; order; gradation​

団結 (danketsu): unity; union; solidarity; combination; teaming up​

だらし無い (darashinai): slovenly (appearance, work, etc.); sloppy; untidy; undisciplined; careless; loose; slack​; weak; feeble; weak-willed; gutless​

脱出 (dasshutsu): escape; break-out​; prolapse; proptosis​

妥当 (datou): valid; proper; right; appropriate; reasonable​

出来上がる (dekiagaru): to be completed; to be finished; to be ready (e.g. to serve or eat)​

電源 (dengen): source of electricity; electrical power​; power (button on TV, etc.)​

電気屋 (denkiya): electric appliance store​

電波 (denpa): radio wave; reception; signal

伝染 (densen): contagion; infection​

伝達 (dentatsu): transmission (e.g. news, chemical signals, electricity); communication; delivery; conveyance; transfer; relay; propagation; conduction​

でたらめに: nonsense; irresponsible remark; codswallop; hogwash; rubbish

土台 (dodai): foundation; base; basis​

独占 (dokusen): monopoly; monopolization; exclusivity​; keeping to oneself​

読者 (dokusha): reader

独身者 (dokushinsha): unmarried person; bachelor

道中 (douchuu): during the journey; on the way; while travelling​

動機 (douki): motive; incentive​

同居 (doukyo): coexistence; living together​

同年代 (dounendai): the same generation; coeval​

導入 (dounyuu): introduction; bringing in; leading in; installation​

動作 (dousa): action; movements; motions; bearing; behaviour; behavior; execution; actuation; operation; manners​

同等 (doutou): equality; equal; same rights; same rank; equivalence​

絵本 (ehon): picture book​

影響力 (eikyouryoku): influence; clout; leverage​

映像 (eizou): image (on a screen); picture (e.g. on a TV)​; video; film; footage​

駅前 (ekimae): in front of station

延長 (enchou): extension; elongation; prolongation; lengthening​

円形 (enkei): round shape; circle; circular form​

演じる (enjiru): to perform (a play); to play (a part); to act (a part); to commit (a blunder)​

円満 (enman): harmonious; peaceful; happy; amicable; smooth; free from trouble​

襟 (eri): collar; lapel; neckband; neck​; nape of the neck; scruff of the neck​

不安定 (fuantei): instability; insecurity; crankiness​

不調 (fuchou): bad condition; not to work out (i.e. a deal); disagreement; break-off; disorder; slump; out of form​

不動産 (fudousan): real estate​

不動産屋 (fudousan’ya): real estate agent; realtor​

不十分 (fujuubun): insufficient; inadequate; imperfect; shortage​

不快 (fukai): displeasure; discomfort; unpleasantness​; indisposition; ailment​

不可欠 (fukaketsu): indispensable; essential​

深まる (fukamaru): to deepen; to heighten; to intensify​

深める (fukameru): to deepen; to heighten; to intensify​

不完全 (fukanzen): imperfect; incomplete; faulty; defective​

不機嫌 (fukigen): pout; displeasure; ill humor; ill humour; sullenness

付近 (fukin): neighbourhood; neighborhood; vicinity; environs​

不規則 (fukisoku): irregularity; unsteadiness; disorderly​

副 (fuku): assistant; associate; vice-; sub-; deputy

含める (fukumeru): to include (in a group or scope)​; to include (a nuance); to put in (an implication)​

膨らます (fukuramasu): to swell; to expand; to inflate; to bulge​

膨らむ (fukuramu): to expand; to swell (out); to get big; to become inflated​

福祉 (fukushi): welfare; well-being; social welfare; social security; social service​

複数 (fukusuu): plural; multiple; several​

普及 (fukyuu): diffusion; spread; popularization; promulgation; familiarization​

不明 (fumei): unclear; obscure; indistinct; uncertain; ambiguous​; unknown; unidentified​

不明瞭 (fumeiryou): dimness; obscurity; indistinctness; unclear; unintelligible​

ふもと: foot (of a mountain or hill); bottom; base

ふらふら: unsteadily (e.g. on one’s feet); shakily; staggering; tottering; reeling; dizzily; giddily; wavering (in one’s mind); unsteadily; indecisively​

触れ合い (fureai): contact; connectedness; rapport; mutual touching​

触れ合う (fureau): to come into contact with; to touch (each other)

振り込み (furikomi): payment made via bank deposit transfer​

振り向く (furimuku): to turn one’s face; to turn around; to look over one’s shoulder​

不良品 (furyouhin): inferior goods; defective product; defective goods​

塞ぐ (fusagu): to stop up; to close up; to block (up); to plug up; to shut up; to cover (ears, eyes, etc.); to close (eyes, mouth)​; to stand in the way; to obstruct​; to occupy; to fill up; to take up​

不採用 (fusaiyou): rejection (of an application)​

負担 (futan): burden; load; responsibility​; bearing (a cost, responsibility, etc.); shouldering​

風 (fuu): appearance; air​

不愉快 (fuyukai): unpleasant; disagreeable; displeasing; uncomfortable; unhappy​

街 (gai): … street; … quarter; … district​

外観 (gaikan): outward appearance; exterior appearance; outward show; looks​

外見 (gaiken): outward appearance​

概要 (gaiyou): outline; summary; overview; abridgment; synopsis​

学費 (gakuhi): tuition; school expenses

学業 (gakugyou): studies; schoolwork; classwork​

学年 (gakunen): academic year; school year​

学歴 (gakureki): academic background​

学生課 (gakuseika): student affairs office​

願望 (ganbou): desire; wish; aspiration​

頑丈 (ganjou): solid; firm; stout; burly; strong; sturdy​

頑固 (ganko): stubborn; obstinate; pigheaded​

がらがら: with a clatter; with a rattle​

がっしり: firmly; solidly; sturdily; strongly; toughly

合宿 (gasshuku): lodging together; training camp; boarding house​

画用紙 (gayoushi): drawing paper

芸能 (geinou): public entertainment; performing arts​; accomplishments; attainments​

劇的 (gekiteki): dramatic; exciting; touching​; extreme

現代人 (gendaijin): modern person; people of today​

現時点 (genjiten): present point (i.e. in history); at the present time​

原稿 (genkou): manuscript; copy; draft; notes; contribution​

原理 (genri): principle; theory; fundamental truth​

原料 (genryou): raw materials​

原作 (gensaku): original work​

原産 (gensan): place of origin; habitat​

厳守 (genshu): strict observance; rigid adherence; scrupulous compliance​

原則 (gensoku): principle; general rule​

減速 (gensoku): deceleration

幻想 (gensou): fantasy; illusion; vision; dream​

限定 (gentei): limit; restriction​

現在地 (genzaichi): present location; current location; “you are here” (on map)​

議題 (gidai): topic of discussion; agenda​

疑問点 (gimonten): point of uncertainty; unclarified issue; doubt​

銀行員 (ginkouin): bank employee; bank staff member; bank clerk​

ぎりぎり: just barely; only just; at the very limit; at the last moment

儀式 (gishiki): ceremony; rite; ritual; service​

ぎっしり: tightly (packed); densely; closely; crammed​

ぎざぎざ: notches; serration; indentation; jaggies (stair-step artifacts in computer images)​

ごちゃごちゃ: messy; confused; chaotic; disorderly; mixed-up; jumbled up

強引 (gouin): overbearing; coercive; pushy; forcible; high-handed​

ぐったり: limply; wearily; listlessly; languidly; exhaustedly; unenergetically

後日 (gojitsu): in the future; another day; later​

娯楽 (goraku): pleasure; amusement​

合同 (goudou): combination; union; incorporation; amalgamation; fusion

愚痴 (guchi): idle complaint; grumble​

ぐんぐん: rapidly; vigorously; by leaps and bounds; steadily​

行事 (gyouji): event; function​

行列 (gyouretsu): line; queue; procession; parade​

幅広い (habahiroi): extensive; wide; broad​

蜂 (hachi): bee; wasp

蜂蜜 (hachimitsu): honey

鉢植え (hachiue): potted plant​

破片 (hahen): fragment; broken piece; splinter; chip; shard​

背景 (haikei): background; scenery; backdrop; setting; circumstance; context​; backing; support (from behind the scenes)​

廃止 (haishi): abolition; repeal​

墓参り (hakamairi): visit to a grave​

発揮 (hakki): show (of power, ability, etc.); exhibition; demonstration; display; manifestation​

泊 (haku): counter for nights of a stay​

白衣 (hakui): white robe; (doctor’s) white gown​

鼻水 (hanamizu): nasal mucus; dripping nose; snot​

話し合い (hanashiai): discussion; conference​

話し声 (hanashigoe): speaking voice; talking voice​

話し手 (hanashite): speaker

販売者 (hanbaisha): seller; vendor​

反映 (han’ei): reflection (light, image, situation, attitude, etc.); reflecting​; influence; application (e.g. of an update)​

半額 (hangaku): half the amount (of money); half price; half fare​

半減 (hangen): reduction by half; halving​

恥 (haji): shame; embarrassment; disgrace​

反感 (hankan): antipathy; antagonism; animosity; revulsion; ill feeling​

半日 (hannichi): half day

反発 (hanpatsu): opposition; rebellion; revolt; resistance; backlash; refusal​; rebounding; recoiling; repulsion​

張り切る (harikiru): to be in high spirits; to be full of vigor (vigour); to be enthusiastic; to be eager; to stretch to breaking point​

反論 (hanron): objection; refutation; rebuttal; counterargument​

半数 (hansuu): half the number

腹を立てる (hara o tateru): to take offense; to take offence; to get angry; to lose one’s temper

張り紙 (harigami): paper patch; paper backing; poster; sticker; label​​

挟む (hasamu): to hold between (e.g. one’s fingers, chopsticks); to grip (from both sides)​; to put between; to sandwich between; to insert; to interpose​; to insert (e.g. a break into proceedings); to interpose (e.g. an objection); to interject; to throw in (e.g. a joke)​

発散 (hassan): emission; emanation; radiation; diffusion; dispersion​; letting out (feelings); venting​

発想 (hassou): idea; conception; way of thinking

発送 (hassou): sending; forwarding; shipping​

働き手 (hatarakite): worker; breadwinner; supporter​; able person; able man; productive worker​

果たす (hatasu): to accomplish; to achieve; to carry out; to fulfill; to fulfil; to realize; to execute; to perform; to do​

発言 (hatsugen): statement; remark; observation; utterance; speech; proposal​

早口 (hayakuchi): fast-talking; rapid talking​

早まる (hayamaru): to be brought forward (e.g. by three hours); to be moved up; to be advanced​; to quicken; to speed up; to gather speed

流行り (hayari): fashion; fad; vogue; craze​

隔てる (hedateru): to separate (by distance, time, etc.); to isolate; to partition; to divide​; to interpose; to have between​; to alienate; to estrange​

平凡 (heibon): ordinary; common; commonplace; mediocre; unremarkable; undistinguished; uneventful​

平気 (heiki): coolness; calmness; composure; unconcern​

弊社 (heisha): our firm; our company (humble)

閉店 (heiten): closing up shop (for the day)​; stopping business; going out of business​

変換 (henkan): change; conversion; transformation​

変形 (henkei): transformation; variation; metamorphosis; modification; deformation; variety; deformity; monster​

返金 (henkin): repayment

返品 (henpin): returned goods; returning purchased goods​

返信 (henshin): reply

偏食 (henshoku): unbalanced diet​

編集 (henshuu): editing; compilation​

返送 (hensou): sending back; return to sender​

返答 (hentou): reply; answer​

非 (hi): (prefix) un-; non-; an-​

日当たり (hiatari): exposure to the sun; sunny place​

非凡 (hibon): extraordinary; uncommon; remarkable; unusual; rare; prodigious​

日々 (hibi): every day; daily; day after day; days (e.g. good old days)​

必着 (hicchaku): must arrive; must be received​

日帰り (higaeri): day trip​

日頃 (higoro): normally; habitually​

引き込む (hikikomu): to pull into; to draw in; to bring in​; to win over

引き止める (hikitomeru): to detain; to check; to restrain​

引き取る (hikitoru): to take into one’s possession; to receive; to accept; to collect; to claim​; to take (a person) into one’s care; to take custody of; to adopt​

引き続き (hikitsuzuki): continuously; continually; without a break​; next; then; after that​

引き渡す (hikiwatasu): to deliver; to extradite; to stretch across; to hand over​

引っかかる (hikkakaru): to be caught in; to be stuck in​; to get mixed up in (trouble); to get entangled in (a problem); to be involved with​

筆記 (hikki): (taking) notes; copying​; writing

非公式 (hikoushiki): informal; unofficial​

惹く (hiku): to draw (attention, sympathy, etc.); to attract (e.g. interest)​

卑怯 (hikyou): cowardice; meanness; unfairness​

非難 (hinan): criticism; blame; censure; attack; reproach​

避難 (hinan): taking refuge; finding shelter; evacuation; escape; seeking safe haven​

品質 (hinshitsu): (material) quality​

比例 (hirei): proportion

広場 (hiroba): plaza; (public) square; piazza; forum; open space

広々 (hirobiro): extensive; spacious​

広がり (hirogari): spread; span; expanse; extent​

広げる (hirogeru): to spread; to extend; to expand; to enlarge; to widen; to broaden; to unfold; to open; to unroll; to unwrap​

秘書 (hisho): (private) secretary​; treasured book; secret book​

潜む (hisomu): to lurk; to be hidden; to be concealed; to lie dormant; to be latent​

筆者 (hissha): writer; author​

ひそひそ: in a whisper; in a low voice; in undertones

密か (hisoka): secret; private; surreptitious​

秘する (hisuru): to keep secret; to conceal​

ひたすら: intently; single‐mindedly; devotedly; solely; earnestly; with all one’s heart

人前 (hitomae): presence of other people; (in) public; (in) front of others​

ひと昔 (hitomukashi): ages; long time; decade; the past ten years​

一人残らず (hitorinokorazu): everyone

必要不可欠 (hitsuyoufukaketsu): essential; indispensable; imperative; necessary; compelling, vital, critical​

冷やす (hiyasu): to cool (from room temperature); to chill; to refrigerate; to calm down; to cool off; to regain one’s composure; to relax​; to be frightened (at); to be scared (of)​

日差し (hizashi): sunlight; rays of the sun​

保護者 (hogosha): guardian; protector; patron; parent​

保育園 (hoikuen): nursery school; day nursery; preschool​

保育所 (hoikusho): nursery school; nursery​

補助 (hojo): assistance; support; aid; help​; subsidy; supplement; subvention; grant-in-aid​

歩行 (hokou): walk

本番 (honban): performance; take; going before an audience or on-air​; game; season; crucial moment​

本業 (hongyou): principal occupation; core business​

本格 (honkaku): original method or procedure; serious; orthodox; classical; genuine​

本日 (honjitsu): today

本来 (honrai): originally; primarily​; essentially; intrinsically; naturally; by nature; in (and of) itself​

本社 (honsha): head office; main office; headquarters; parent company; this company; this shrine​

本心 (honshin): true feelings​

保守 (hoshu): maintenance; conservatism; conservativeness; conservation​

補足 (hosoku): supplement; complement​

細長い (hosonagai): long and narrow​

舗装 (hosou): pavement; road surface​

欲する (hossuru): to want; to desire

包丁 (houchou): kitchen knife; carving knife​

報道 (houdou): information; report; journalism; news​

放映 (houei): televising; broadcasting; airing​

放課後 (houkago): after school​

子供たちは、放課後集まって宿題をしている。

報告書 (houkokusho): (written) report​

方面 (houmen): direction; district; area​

方針 (houshin): policy; plan; course; principle; objective​

表示 (hyouji): indication; expression; showing; manifestation; demonstration​; display; displaying

評論 (hyouron): criticism; critique​

表紙 (hyoushi): cover (of a book, magazine, etc.); binding​

異 (i): (prefix) different

居場所 (ibasho): whereabouts; place; location; place where one belongs; where one fits in; place where one can be oneself​

いちいち: one-by-one; separately; every single; each and every; without omission; fully; in detail​

一段 (ichidan): more; much more; still more; all the more​

一段落 (ichidanraku): reaching a stopping place; settling down (before the next stage); getting to a point where one can rest; completing the first stage (of the work)​

一面 (ichimen): one face; one surface​; the whole surface​; one aspect; one side​; (on) the other hand​

一覧 (ichiran): look; glance; sight; inspection​; summary; list; table; catalog; catalogue​

一例 (ichirei): example; an instance​

一時休業 (ichijikyuugyou): temporary suspension (of business); brief shutdown

著しい (ichijirushii): striking; remarkable; considerable​

一助 (ichijo): help; assistance​

遺伝 (iden): heredity; (genetic) inheritance​

遺伝子 (idenshi): gene; genetic

意外性 (igaisei): unpredictability; element of surprise​

意義 (igi): meaning; significance​

居心地 (igokochi): comfort

いい加減 (iikagen): irresponsible; perfunctory; careless​; lukewarm; half-baked; halfhearted; vague​; reasonable; moderate

言い訳 (iiwake): excuse; explanation

意地悪 (ijiwaru): malicious; ill-tempered; unkind​

怒り (ikari): anger; rage; fury; wrath; indignation​

生かす (ikasu): to make (the best) use of; to put to good use; to leverage (skills, attributes, experience, etc.); to capitalise on (experience, etc.)​

生き生き (ikiiki): in a lively way; vividly; freshly; animatedly; actively; energetically​

いきなり: abruptly; suddenly; all of a sudden; without warning

生き残る (ikinokoru): to survive​

息抜き (ikinuki): taking a breather; relaxation; vent hole​

一見 (ikken): look; glimpse; glance​; apparently; seemingly​

一気に (ikki ni): in one go; in one gulp; in one breath; without stopping; without pausing; without resting; in one sitting; at a stretch; all at once​

一向に (ikkou ni): completely; absolutely; totally​; (not) at all; (not) a bit; (not) in the least​; earnestly; intently; determinedly​

移行 (ikou): switching over to; migration; transition​

育児 (ikuji): childcare; child-rearing; nursing; upbringing​

育成 (ikusei): rearing; training; nurture; cultivation; promotion​

いまいち: not quite (right); not very good; somewhat (lacking)​

印鑑 (inkan): stamp; seal​

飲料水 (inryousui): drinking water​

印刷物 (insatsubutsu): printed matter​

飲食店 (inshokuten): restaurant

一方的 (ippouteki): one-sided; unilateral; arbitrary​

入れ込む (irekomu): to put in; to place inside; to push into; to stuff into​; to be enthusiastic; to be engrossed​

入り替える (irikaeru): to replace; to substitute; to shift; to change places

衣装 (ishou): clothing; costume; outfit; garment; dress

急ぎ (isogi): haste; hurry; expedition; speed; dispatch​

一斉に (issei ni): simultaneously; all at once; in unison​

傷む (itamu): to be spoiled (e.g. food); to be damaged​

意図 (ito): intention; aim; design​

嫌々 (iyaiya): unwillingly; grudgingly; reluctantly​

意欲 (iyoku): will; desire; ambition; urge (e.g. creative urge)​

痛ましい (itamashii): pitiful; heartbreaking; heartrending; touching; tragic; sad; hurtful​

痛める (itameru): to hurt; to injure; to cause pain​; to harm; to damage; to spoil

一斉に (issei ni): simultaneously; all at once; in unison​

一色 (isshoku): same tendency; everyone being caught up in the same thing​; one color

移転 (iten): moving; relocation; change of address​; transfer (of deeds, property, etc.); demise​

一旦 (ittan): once; for a short time; briefly; temporarily

一定 (ittei): fixed; settled; constant; definite; uniform; regularized; regularised; defined; standardized; standardised; certain; prescribed​

一転 (itten): complete change; reversal; sudden transformation​

居酒屋 (izakaya): izakaya; Japanese bar that also serves various dishes and snacks​

依然 (izen): still; as yet; as it has been

事物 (jibutsu): things; affairs​

実地 (jicchi): practice (as opposed to theory); actual practice​; actual site; (at) the scene; (on) the spot​

自治体 (jichitai): municipality; local government; self-governing body; autonomous body​

児童 (jidou): children; juvenile​

次回 (jikai): next time (occasion)​

事業 (jigyou): project; enterprise; business; industry; operations; venture; service​

時事 (jiji): events of the day; current affairs​

次回 (jikai): next time (occasion)​

時間帯 (jikantai): period of time; time slot; time zone​

自覚 (jikaku): self-consciousness; self-awareness​

実感 (jikkan): real feeling; actual feeling​

実験者 (jikkensha): experimenter; researcher​

じっくり: deliberately; carefully; thoroughly; without rushing​

自己 (jiko): self; oneself​

時給 (jikyuu): hourly pay; hourly wage​

地元 (jimoto): home area; home town​; local

人工物 (jinkoubutsu): artificial object; man-made object; artifact; artefact​

人工知能 (jinkouchinou): artificial intelligence; AI

人材 (jinzai): capable person; talented person​; human resources; personnel​

事例 (jirei): example; precedent; case​

自律 (jiritsu): autonomy (philosophy)​; self-control​

持参 (jisan): bringing; taking; carrying​

自社 (jisha): one’s company; company one works for​

実質 (jisshitsu): substance; essence​; real (in economics, vs. nominal, e.g. real interest rate); substantive; substantial; essential; tangible​

自主 (jishu): independence; autonomy; self-reliance​

自習 (jishuu): self-study; teaching oneself

実績 (jisseki): achievements; actual results; accomplishments; past results; track record​

実践 (jissen): practice; putting into practice; implementation​

実施 (jisshi): enforcement; implementation; putting into practice; carrying out; operation; working (e.g. working parameters); enactment​

自体 (jitai): itself

辞退 (jitai): declining; refusal; nonacceptance; turning down; withdrawal (e.g. of candidacy); pulling out (e.g. of a race); excusing oneself​

時点 (jiten): point in time; occasion​

事典 (jiten): encyclopedia; cyclopedia​

事前 (jizen): prior; beforehand; in advance; before the fact; ex ante

慈善 (jizen): charity; philanthropy​

持続 (jizoku): continuation; persisting; lasting; sustaining; enduring

じたばた: (kicking and) struggling; wriggling; floundering​

序列 (joretsu): rank; ranking order; hierarchy​

助手席 (joshuseki): passenger seat; assistant driver’s seat​

上部 (joubu): top part; surface​

上半身 (jouhanshin): upper half of (one’s) body; upper body; bust

蒸発 (jouhatsu): evaporation; disappearance (of people intentionally concealing their whereabouts); unexplained disappearance​

上位 (joui): superior (in rank); top; ranking​

情景 (joukei): spectacle; sight; scene​

上級者 (joukyuusha): advanced student; advanced learner; advanced practitioner; experienced person​

常温 (jouon): normal temperature; room temperature​

上陸 (jouriku): landing; disembarkation; landfall​

乗車 (jousha): boarding (a train, bus, etc.); getting into (e.g. a taxi)​

上司 (joushi): (one’s) superior; (one’s) boss; the higher-ups​

上昇 (joushou): rising; ascending; climbing​

錠剤 (jouzai): pill; lozenge; tablet​

受動的 (judouteki): passive

受験生 (jukensei): student preparing for or taking examinations (usu. entrance exams); test-taker​

受講 (jukou): taking (attending) lectures​

塾 (juku): coaching school; cramming school; juku​

寿命 (jumyou): life span​

順位 (jun’i): order; rank; position (e.g. in a race); precedence​

循環 (junkan): circulation; rotation; cycle; loop​

順に (jun ni): in order; in turn; one by one​

順序 (junjo): order; sequence; procedure​

順応 (junnou): adaptation; accommodation; conforming; adjustment​; acclimatization

純粋 (junsui): pure; true; genuine; unmixed​

受診 (jushin): having a medical examination; seeing a doctor​

受賞 (jushou): winning (a prize)​

充電 (juuden): charging (electrically)​

充実感 (juujitsukan): sense of fulfillment; sense of completeness; sense of accomplishment; sense of contentment​

充満 (juuman): being filled with; being full of; permeation​

柔軟 (juunan): flexible; lithe; soft; pliable​

充実 (juujitsu): fullness; completion; perfection; enhancement; improvement; enrichment; upgrading​

充実感 (juujitsukan): sense of fulfillment; sense of completeness; sense of accomplishment; sense of contentment​

住宅地 (juutakuchi): housing district; residential district​

重役 (juuyaku): (company) director; executive; top management​; important post; role with heavy responsibilities​

課 (ka): lesson; section (in an organization); division; department​; counter for lessons and chapters (of a book)​

価値観 (kachikan): sense of values; values; value system​

課題 (kadai): subject; theme; issue; matter​; homework; assignment​; task; challenge; problem; question​

過度 (kado): excessive; immoderate​

花粉 (kafun): pollen

花粉症 (kafunshou): hay fever; pollinosis (allergy to pollen)​

輝かしい (kagayakashii): brilliant; glorious; glittering; bright; splendid (e.g. achievement, success); promising (e.g. future)​

輝き (kagayaki): brightness; brilliance; brilliancy; radiance; glitter​

過激 (kageki): extreme; radical​

限り (kagiri): limit; limits; bounds​; degree; extent; scope​

限りない (kagirinai): eternal; unlimited; endless​

嗅ぐ (kagu): to sniff; to smell​

下位 (kai): low rank; lower position; subordinate position; lower order (e.g. byte)​

開封 (kaifuu): opening (an envelope or parcel); breaking the seal; unsealed letter​

介護 (kaigo): nursing; care; caregiving; caring​

介護施設 (kaigoshisetsu): nursing home; rest home

開発 (kaihatsu): development; exploitation​

解放 (kaihou): release; unleashing; liberation; emancipation; setting free​

開放感 (kaihoukan): sense of space; spaciousness​

会員証 (kaiinshou): membership card; membership certificate​

開会 (kaikai): opening of a meeting​

会見 (kaiken): interview; audience; meeting; (viewing) party

解決策 (kaiketsusaku): solution; solution strategy​

開幕 (kaimaku): raising the curtain​; opening (of an event); start of a season

皆無 (kaimu): nonexistent; nil; none; nothing (at all); bugger-all​

飼い主 (kainushi): shepherd; (pet) owner​

回覧 (kairan): circulation (esp. documents); sending round​

改良 (kairyou): improvement; reform​

開催 (kaisai): holding (a conference, exhibition, etc.); opening; hosting (e.g. the Olympics)​

解散 (kaisan): breaking up (e.g. meeting); dispersing (e.g. crowd)​; dissolving (company, organization, etc.); liquidating; disbanding​

改正 (kaisei): revision; amendment; alteration​

開設 (kaisetsu): establishment; opening; setting up; inauguration​

解説 (kaisetsu): explanation; commentary; exposition; elucidation​

買い占める (kaishimeru): to buy up​

解消 (kaishou): cancellation; liquidation; resolution; reduction (e.g. of stress)​

海水浴 (kaisuiyoku): swimming in the ocean; sea bathing; seawater bath; going for a dip in the ocean​

回数 (kaisuu): number of times; frequency; count

改訂 (kaitei): revision (of text); alteration; change

回転 (kaiten): rotation (usu. around something); revolution; turning​

開店 (kaiten): opening a new shop​; opening a shop (for the day)​

回答 (kaitou): reply; answer​

解約 (kaiyaku): cancellation of contract​

果実 (kajitsu): fruit; nut; berry​; profit

過剰 (kajou): excess; surplus; superabundance; overabundance​

係 (kakari): charge; duty; person in charge; official; clerk

欠かせない (kakasenai): indispensable; vital; fundamental; imperative; crucial

欠かす (kakasu): to miss (doing); to fail (to do)​

関わり合う (kakawariau): to get involved or entangled in; to get mixed up in; to have something to do with; to have dealings with​

下記 (kaki): the following

夏期 (kaki): summer term (e.g. school); summer period​

格好つける (kakkou tsukeru): to affect a stylish air; to try to look good; to show off​

隔 (kaku): every other; second; alternate​

格別 (kakubetsu): particular; special; exceptional; especial​

角度 (kakudo): angle

確保 (kakuho): securing; obtaining; ensuring; guarantee; maintaining​

各位 (kakui): everyone; each and every one (of you); ladies and gentlemen​

各自 (kakuji): each (person); everyone; individual; respective​

確率 (kakuritsu): probability; likelihood; chances​

獲得 (kakutoku): acquisition; possession​

格安 (kakuyasu): cheap; reasonable

歓迎会 (kangeikai): welcome party

活発 (kappatsu): lively; active; vigorous; animated; brisk​

係 (kakari): charge; duty; person in charge; official; clerk​

係員 (kakariin): person in charge; official; attendant​

駆け抜ける (kakenukeru): to run past from behind; to run through (e.g. gate, one’s mind)​

拡充 (kakujuu): expansion

確信 (kakushin): conviction; belief; confidence​

確定 (kakutei): decision; settlement​

感 (kan): (prefix) feeling; sensation; emotion; admiration; impression​

叶う (kanau): to come true (of a wish, prayer, etc.); to be realized; to be fulfilled; to suit (e.g. a purpose); to meet (wishes, ideals, etc.); to conform to (standards, rules, etc.); to be consistent with​

完備 (kanbi): (being) fully equipped; (being) fully furnished

勘違い (kanchigai): misunderstanding; mistaken idea; wrong guess​

加熱 (kanetsu): heating; application of heat​

看護 (kango): nursing; (army) nurse​

看護師 (kangoshi): (hospital) nurse; registered nurse​

感じ取る (kanjitoru): to perceive; to sense; to take in; to grasp; to feel​

簡潔 (kanketsu): brevity; conciseness; simplicity​

観光地 (kankouchi): tourist attraction; sight-seeing area​

観念 (kannen): idea; notion; concept; conception​; sense (e.g. of duty)​

完璧 (kanpeki): perfect; complete; flawless​

簡略 (kanryaku): simple; simplicity; brief; brevity​

簡略化 (kanryakuka): simplification

観戦 (kansen): watching a (sports) game; spectating; observing (military operations)​

観測 (kansoku): observation; survey; measurement​

鑑賞 (kanshou): appreciation (of art, music, poetry, etc.)​

観点 (kanten): point of view​

勧誘 (kan’yuu): invitation; solicitation; canvassing; canvasing; inducement; persuasion; encouragement​

絡む (karamu): to entangle; to entwine​; to pick a quarrel; to find fault​

仮に (kari ni): supposing; even if; granting that; for argument’s sake; temporarily; provisionally; for the time being​

軽々 (karugaru): lightly; easily; carelessly​

重なる (kasanaru): to be piled up; to lie on top of one another​; to come one after another; to happen over and over; to pile up (e.g. stress); to accumulate

歌詞 (kashi): song lyrics; words of a song; libretto​

貸し出し (kashidashi): lending; loaning

箇所 (kasho): passage; place; point; part

加速 (kasoku): acceleration; speeding up​

かすか: faint; dim; weak; slight; vague; indistinct; hazy​; poor; wretched; meagre; meager; scanty

課する (kasuru): to levy; to charge; to assess; to impose; to assign​

肩幅 (katahaba): shoulder width (breadth)​

傾く (katamuku): to incline toward; to slant; to lurch; to heel over; to be disposed to; to trend toward; to be prone to​

語りかける (katarikakeru): to make a speech; to address​

偏る (katayoru): to lean (to one side); to incline​; to be unbalanced (e.g. diet); to be unduly weighted towards; to be concentrated on​; to be partial; to be biased; to be prejudiced​

片付け (katazuke): tidying up; finishing

片付く (katazuku): to be put in order; to be put to rights​; to be disposed of; to be solved​

過程 (katei): process; course; mechanism​

下等 (katou): inferior; base; vulgar; low grade; lower class​

活字 (katsuji): printing type; movable type​; printed text; print​

活力 (katsuryoku): vitality; energy; dynamism​

活躍 (katsuyaku): activity (esp. energetic); great efforts; conspicuous service​; to flourish; to participate actively; to play an active role​

可愛がる (kawaigaru): to love; to cherish; to be affectionate to; to treat tenderly; to dote on​; to show favouritism to; to be partial to​

変わった (kawatta): another; different; various; particular; unusual; novel; peculiar

かゆい: itchy

飾り付け (kazaritsuke): decoration; arrangement​

数々 (kazukazu): many; numerous; various; large number of​

数多く (kazuooku): in great numbers​

決着 (kecchaku): conclusion; decision; end; settlement​

気配 (kehai): indication; sign; hint; presence; trend​

警備 (keibi): defense; defence; guard; policing; security​

警備員 (keibihin): guard; security (officer); guardsman​

経営者 (keieisha): manager; proprietor​

軽減 (keigen): abatement; reduction​

経費 (keihi): expenses; cost; outlay​

契機 (keiki): opportunity; chance​; trigger; cause​

蛍光灯 (keikoutou): fluorescent lamp; fluorescent light​

経理 (keiri): accounting; administration (of money)​

掲載 (keisai): publication (e.g. of an article in a newspaper); carrying (e.g. a story); running (e.g. a serial); insertion (e.g. of an advertisement); printing; posting (e.g. on the web)​

軽視 (keishi): making light of; thinking little of; slighting; belittling; dismissing; contempt; disdain​

形式 (keishiki): form (as opposed to substance); formality​

計測 (keisoku): measuring; measurement​

携帯 (keitai): something carried (in the hand); handheld; portable​; mobile telephone; cell phone​ (abbreviation)

毛糸 (keito): knitting wool; woollen yarn​

系統 (keitou): system; lineage; ancestry; family line​; group (e.g. of colors) (colours); family (e.g. of languages); party; school (of thought)​

継続 (keizoku): continuation

謙虚 (kenkyo): modest; humble​

検索 (kensaku): looking up (e.g. a word in a dictionary); retrieval (e.g. data); searching for; referring to​

検診 (kenshin): physical examination; medical examination; health checkup; health screening​

研修 (kenshuu): training (esp. in-service); induction course​

研修会 (kenshuukai): workshop; training course​

謙遜 (kenson): modesty; humility; being humble​

決勝 (kesshou): decision of a contest; finals (in sports)​

決勝戦 (kesshousen): championship game; finals (of a tournament); deciding round​

桁 (keta): column; beam; girder; crossbeam; spar; yard​; digit; decade; order of magnitude​

決断 (ketsudan): decision; determination​

険しい (kewashii): precipitous; rugged; inaccessible; impregnable; steep​; grim; severe; stern​

削る (kezuru): to shave (wood, leather, etc.); to sharpen (e.g. pencil); to plane; to whittle; to pare; to scrape off; to erode​; to cut down (budget, expenses, staff, time, etc.); to curtail; to reduce​

気が重い (ki ga omoi): depressed; bummed out; down; heavy-hearted; heavy-spirited; feeling reluctant (to do)​

気が進まない (ki ga susumanai): reluctant to; not inclined to; disinclined; unwilling​

気を落とす (ki o otosu): to be discouraged; to be disheartened​

気を使う (ki o tsukau): to pay attention to another’s needs; to attend to; to fuss about; to take into consideration​

気を失う (ki o ushinau): to lose consciousness; to faint; to black out​

機敏 (kibin): clever; shrewd; canny; smart; quick; prompt​

規模 (kibo): scale; scope; plan; structure​

気分転換 (kibuntenkan): change of pace; change of mood; (mental) break (e.g. going for a walk); refreshment

きっちり: exactly; precisely; punctually; on the dot; closely; tightly; (fitting) perfectly​; properly; without fail​

気軽 (kigaru): carefree; buoyant; lighthearted; sprightly​

器具 (kigu): utensil; apparatus; implement; device; gadget​

期日 (kijitsu): fixed date; settlement date​

企画 (kikaku): planning; project; plan; design​

機器 (kiki): device; equipment; machinery; apparatus​

聞き手 (kikite): hearer; listener; audience; interviewer; questioner​

聞き取る (kikitoru): to catch (a person’s words); to make out; to follow; to understand​

気配り (kikubari): care; attentiveness; attention; consideration (for others); solicitude​

決め付ける (kimetsukeru): to fix upon (one-sidedly); to (ignore somebody’s position and) arbitrarily decide something is the case​

緊張感 (kinchoukan): feeling of tension; air of tension; tension; nervousness

金魚 (kingyo): goldfish

勤務 (kinmu): service; duty; work​

近年 (kinnen): recent years​

近隣 (kinrin): neighborhood; vicinity​

絹 (kinu): silk

金融 (kinyuu): finance; financing; credit transacting; loaning of money; circulation of money​

きっぱり: clearly; plainly; distinctly

気楽 (kiraku): carefree; comfortable; at ease​; easygoing; happy-go-lucky​

切り上げる (kiriageru): to close (at a certain point); to cut short; to stop early; to finish (at a convenient spot)​; to round up (number)​

切り取る (kiritoru): to cut off; to excise; to tear off; to cut out; to whittle down; to tear out; to cut down; to amputate​

帰省 (kisei): homecoming; returning home​

貴社 (kisha): your company​ (honorific)

気象 (kishou): weather; climate

機種 (kishu): type of equipment; model​

競う (kisou): to compete; to contend; to vie; to contest​

鍛える (kitaeru): to forge; to temper​; to drill; to train; to discipline​

規定 (kitei): stipulation; prescription; provision; regulation; rule​

刻み込む (kizamikomu): to etch (name, etc.); to carve (design)​

刻む (kizamu): to mince; to cut fine; to chop up; to hash; to shred​; to carve; to engrave; to chisel; to notch

傷物 (kizumono): defective article; damaged goods​

個別 (kobetsu): particular case; discrete; individual; separate

こだわり: obsession; fixation; hangup; determination; fastidiousness; pickiness about (trait, style, etc.)​; complaining; criticizing​​

拘る (kodawaru): to fuss over; to be particular about​

孤独 (kodoku): solitude; loneliness; isolation​

古風 (kofuu): old-fashioned; archaic; antique; antiquated​

小金 (kogane): small sum of money​

小柄 (kogara): small build; small stature; petite​

焦げる (kogeru): to burn; to scorch; to char; to singe​

個人差 (kojinsa): individual differences; personal equation​

個々 (koko): individual; one by one; separate​

心地良い (kokochiyoi): comfortable; pleasant​

試み (kokoromi): attempt; trial; experiment​; endeavour (endeavor); effort; venture; initiative​

心強い (kokorozuyoi): heartening; reassuring​

快い (kokoroyoi): pleasant; agreeable; comfortable; refreshing​

細やか (komayaka): tender; warm; caring; thoughtful​; meticulous; detailed; attentive​

小物 (komono): accessories; small articles​

根元/根本 (kongen): root; source; origin; foundation; base; principle​

根性 (konjou): willpower; guts; determination; grit; spirit​; character; nature; disposition; personality​

根気 (konki): patience; perseverance; persistence; tenacity; energy​

今年度 (konnendo): this year; this fiscal year; this school year​

好ましい (konomashii): nice; likeable; desirable​

この度 (konotabi): this occasion; at this time; now​

孤立 (koritsu): isolation; being alone; being friendless

個性 (kosei): individuality; personality; idiosyncrasy; character; individual characteristic

子育て (kosodate): child rearing; child raising; raising children; parenting

応える (kotaeru): to respond; to answer; to meet (e.g. demands, expectations)​

個体 (kotai): individual; specimen​

固定 (kotei): fixing (in place); securing; anchoring; fastening down​; fixing (e.g. salary, capital); keeping the same

古典 (koten): classic (work, esp. book); the classics​

言葉遣い (kotobazukai): speech; expression; wording; language

事柄 (kotogara): matter; thing; affair; circumstance​

こつこつ: unflaggingly; steadily; untiringly; laboriously​; knocking; tapping; clicking; drumming​

高 (kou): (prefix) high

好調 (kouchou): favorable; promising; satisfactory; in good shape​

高度 (koudo): altitude; height; elevation​; high-degree; high-grade; advanced; sophisticated; strong​

行動力 (koudouryoku): ability to take action; energy; fire; dynamism; leverage

公演 (kouen): public performance​

校外 (kougai): out-of-school; off-campus

公害 (kougai): pollution; public nuisance; contamination​

後半 (kouhan): second half; latter half​

高品質 (kouhinshitsu): high quality

好印象 (kouinshou): good impression; favorable impression​

向上 (koujou): elevation; rise; improvement; advancement; progress​

恒常 (koujou): constancy; permanence

公開 (koukai): opening to the public; making available to the public; putting on display; exhibiting; showing (play, movie, etc.); holding (interview, etc.); open; public​

好感 (koukan): good feeling; good will; favourable impression; favorable impression​

後期 (kouki): latter period; second half; late stage; third trimester; second semester

高級 (koukyuu): high class; high grade​; high rank; seniority​

交流会 (koukyuukai): gathering; mixer; meetup; assembly; social; exchange meeting​

項目 (koumoku): item; heading; category; clause​; headword (in a dictionary, encyclopedia, etc.); entry

高熱 (kounetsu): high fever​

光熱費 (kounetsuhi): cost of fuel and lighting; cost of heat and electricity; energy bill; utility cost​

好悪 (kouo): likes and dislikes​

高齢 (kourei): advanced age; old age​

高齢化 (koureika): population ageing (aging)​

高齢者 (koureisha): old person; old people​

小売 (kouri): retail

効率 (kouritsu): efficiency

公立 (kouritsu): public (institution)​

効力 (kouryoku): effect; efficacy; validity; potency​

工作 (kousaku): handicraft; work; construction; manufacturing​; maneuvering; manoeuvering​

考察 (kousatsu): consideration; inquiry; enquiry; investigation; study​

公正 (kousei): justice; fairness; impartiality​

光線 (kousen): beam; light ray

講師 (koushi): lecturer

更新 (koushin): renewal; update; innovation; improvement​

公衆 (koushuu): the public; general public​

高層 (kousou): multistory; multistoried; high-rise; high; tall​

香水 (kousui): perfume

交代 (koutai): alternation; change; relief; relay; shift; substitution (sports, etc.); taking turns​

肯定 (koutei): affirmation

紅葉 (kouyou): autumn colours; fall colors; leaves changing color

効用 (kouyou): use; utility; effect; benefit​

口座 (kouza): account (e.g. bank)​

講座 (kouza): course (e.g. of lectures)​; academic teaching unit; lectureship; professorial chair​

構造 (kouzou): structure; construction; makeup; framework; organization; pattern​

小遣い (kozukai): pocket money; spending money; pin money; allowance

怖がる (kowagaru): to be afraid of; to fear; to dread; to be nervous (about); to be shy (of)​

苦 (ku): pain; anguish; suffering; distress; anxiety; worry; trouble; difficulty; hardship

砕く (kudaku): to break, to smash

くどい: verbose; importunate; wordy; repetitious; long-winded; heavy (taste); rich; strong; cloying; gaudy; loud

区切り (kugiri): punctuation; pause; juncture​; end; (place to) stop​

苦情 (kujou): complaint; troubles; objection; grievance​

組み替える (kumikaeru): to rearrange (classes); to recompose; to reset; to recombine (genes)​

組み込む (kumikomu): to insert; to include; to incorporate; to cut in (printing)​

暗闇 (kurayami): darkness; the dark​

繰り返し (kurikaeshi): repetition; repeat; reiteration; iteration; refrain; cycle​; repeatedly

車椅子 (kurumaisu): wheelchair; folding push-chair

苦戦 (kusen): hard fight; close game; struggle; tight contest​

国々 (kuniguni): countries

くしゃみ: sneeze

くたくた: exhausted; tired; withered; worn out​

空洞 (kuudou): cave; hollow; cavity​

空間 (kuukan): space; room; airspace​

空席 (kuuseki): empty seat; unoccupied seat​; vacancy; vacant post​

空想 (kuusou): daydream; fantasy; fancy; vision

悔やむ (kuyamu): to mourn; to lament​; to be sorry; to regret; to repent​

崩す (kuzusu): to destroy; to demolish; to pull down; to tear down; to level​; to break (a bill); to change; to make change​

客観的 (kyakkanteki): objective

客席 (kyakuseki): guest seating (e.g. theater, stadium); passenger seat (e.g. taxi)​; audience

拒否 (kyohi): refusal; rejection; denial; veto​

曲線 (kyokusen): curve

極端 (kyokutan): extreme; extremity​

強風 (kyoufuu): strong wind; high wind; moderate gale​

教員 (kyouin): teacher; instructor; teaching staff; faculty member​

強弱 (kyoujaku): strength and weakness; (degree of) strength​; stress (of a sound); loudness​

強化 (kyouka): strengthening; intensifying; reinforcement; enhancement; solidification​

協会 (kyoukai): association; society; organization; organisation​

教師 (kyoushi): teacher (classroom)​

恐縮 (kyoushuku): feeling obliged; being grateful; being thankful; being sorry; being ashamed​

教養 (kyouyou): cultivation; refinement; culture; education​

共有 (kyouyuu): joint ownership; co-ownership; sharing (e.g. a viewpoint)​

旧 (kyuu): ex-; former; old​

休暇明け (kyuukaake): post-vacation

急病 (kyuubyou): sudden illness​

休業 (kyuugyou): closed (e.g. store); business suspended; shutdown; holiday​

求人 (kyuujin): recruiting; job offer; job vacancy​

休養 (kyuuyou): rest; break; recreation; recuperation; convalescence​

急増 (kyuuzou): rapid increase; proliferation; surge; explosion​

町並み (machinami): townscape; street (of stores and houses); (look of) stores and houses on street​

まぶた: eyelid; eyelids​

間近 (madjika): proximity; nearness; soon; nearby​

窓際 (madogiwa): (at the) window​

窓口 (madoguchi): ticket window; teller window; counter​; contact person; point of contact​

魔法 (mahou): magic; witchcraft; sorcery​

前向き (maemuki): front-facing; forward-looking; positive; constructive

間際 (magiwa): the point just before; the point of doing; the verge of happening​

巻き込む (makikomu): to roll up; to enfold; to swallow up​; to involve; to drag into​

まく: to scatter; to sprinkle; to strew​

真似る (maneru): to mimic; to imitate​

満員 (man’in): full house; no vacancy; sold out; standing room only; full (of people); crowded​

満足度 (manzokudo): (degree of) satisfaction​

稀 (mare): rare, seldom

真っ先 (massaki): the head; the foremost; beginning; the very front​

真っ白 (masshiro): pure white​

まとめる: to collect; to put (it all) together; to integrate; to consolidate; to unify​; to summarize; to aggregate​; to bring to a conclusion; to finalize; to settle; to put in order

目 (me): (suffix) ordinal number suffix​

目に触れる (me ni fureru)

目新しい (meatarashii): original; novel; new​

目当て (meate): mark; guide; landmark​; purpose; aim; goal; intention; end

目立つ (medatsu): to be conspicuous; to stand out​

恵み (megumi): blessing; grace​

恵む (megumu): to bless; to show mercy to​; to give (money, etc.)​

名簿 (meibo): register of names; list of names; roll; register; roster

名物 (meibutsu): famous product; special product; speciality; specialty

名産 (meisan): noted product; local specialty

名刺 (meishi): business card​

明示 (meiji): elucidation; explicit statement; specification​

明確 (meikaku): clear; precise; definite; distinct​

名門 (meimon): noted family; noble family​; prestigious school, organization, business, etc.

明瞭 (meiryou): clear; plain; distinct; obvious; evident; articulate

名所 (meisho): famous place

目印 (mejirushi): mark; sign; landmark; benchmark​

面会 (menkai): meeting (face-to-face); interview​

面する (mensuru): to face on; to look out on to​

目線 (mesen): one’s gaze​; point of view; standpoint​

目覚める (mezameru): to wake up; to awake​; to awaken to (instinct, ability, perception, etc.); to become aware of; to become conscious of; to realize​; to come to one’s senses​

未 (mi): (prefix) not yet; un-​

見合う (miau): to exchange glances​; to correspond; to counterbalance​

身振り手振り (miburiteburi): gestures; gesturing​

密着 (micchaku): close adhesion; sticking firmly to; being glued to​

道案内 (michiannai): guidance; showing the way; guide​; guidepost; signpost; waymark​

導く (michibiku): to guide; to lead; to show the way; to conduct​

道のり (michinori): distance; journey; itinerary​; path (e.g. to one’s goal); way; process; route; road​

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乱れる (midareru): to be disordered; to be disarranged; to be disarrayed; to be disheveled; to be dishevelled​

見出し (midashi): heading; headline; title; caption​

見張る (miharu): to stand watch; to stand guard; to look out​

見直す (minaosu): to look at again​; to re-examine; to get a better opinion of; to see in a more positive light​

見慣れる (minareru): to become used to seeing; to be familiar with​

民家 (minka): private house​

見逃す (minogasu): to miss; to overlook; to fail to notice​; to let pass (a matter); to overlook (e.g. a wrongdoing); to turn a blind eye to​

身の回り (mi no mawari): one’s personal belongings; one’s vicinity; one’s daily life; everyday necessities​

民族 (minzoku): people; race; nation; ethnic group; ethnos​

密閉 (mippei): shutting tightly; sealing something airtight​

密接 (missetsu): close (relationship, connection, etc.); intimate; near​; close (together)​

満たす (mitasu): to satisfy (conditions, one’s appetite, etc.); to meet (e.g. demands); to fulfill; to gratify​

見通し (mitooshi): unobstructed view; perspective; visibility; vista​; forecast; outlook; prospect; prediction​; insight; foresight​

見積書 (mitsumorisho): written estimate; quotation; quote​

見積もる (mitsumoru): to estimate​

見分ける (miwakeru): to distinguish; to recognize; to recognise; to tell apart; to differentiate (both figuratively and visually)​

見渡す (miwatasu): to look out over; to survey (scene); to take an extensive view of​

溝 (mizo): ditch; drain; gutter; trench​; groove; tread​; gap (between people, countries, etc.); gulf​

持ち出す (mochidasu): to take out; to carry out; to bring out from where it belongs​; to mention something; to broach a topic; to bring up (a subject)

持ち込む (mochikomu): to take something into …; to bring in; to carry in​

持ち主 (mochinushi): owner; proprietor; possessor (e.g. of talent, beauty, etc.)​

潜る (moguru): to dive (into or under water)​; to get under; to get into; to get in; to creep into; to crawl under; to bury oneself; to burrow into; to dig oneself into; to snuggle under​

模範 (mohan): exemplar; model; example; pattern​

模型 (mokei): model; dummy; maquette​

木製 (mokusei): wooden; made of wood​

目的地 (mokutekichi): place of destination​

木材 (mokuzai): lumber; timber; wood​

問題点 (mondaiten): the problem (at issue); the point at issue; problematic issue; problem

物真似 (monomane): mimicry; imitation (of someone, something)​

物足りない (monotarinai): unsatisfied; unsatisfactory; insufficient​

盛り上がる (moriagaru): to swell; to rise; to bulge; to be piled up​; to rouse; to get excited​

もったいない: wasteful; a waste​; impious; profane; sacrilegious​; too good; more than one deserves; unworthy of​

猛 (mou): (prefix): extreme; severe​

催し (moyooshi): event; festivities; function; social gathering; auspices; opening; holding (a meeting)​

最寄り (moyori): nearest; neighboring; nearby​

無 (mu/bu): (prefix) un-; non-​

無縁 (muen): unrelated; irrelevant; indifferent​; without relations (esp. of a deceased person); having no surviving relatives​cho

無限 (mugen): infinity; infinitude; eternity​; infinite; limitless​

無意識 (muishiki): unconsciousness; unconscious; involuntary; automatic; mechanical; unintentional; spontaneous​

無条件 (mujouken): unconditional

矛盾 (mujun): contradiction; inconsistency​

無関係 (mukankei): unrelated

無関心 (mukanshin): apathetic; indifferent​

昔話 (mukashibanashi): old tale; folk tale; legend​; reminiscence

むかつく: to feel irritated; to feel offended; to feel angry​; to feel sick; to feel nauseous

向き合う (mukiau): to be opposite; to face each other​; to confront (an issue); to face​

無口 (mukuchi): taciturn; reticent; quiet; silent; untalkative​

無給 (mukyuu): unpaid; nonsalaried​

無線 (musen): radio (communication)​; wireless; not using wires

蒸し暑い (mushiatsui): humid; sultry​

結びつく (musubitsuku): to be related; to be connected; to be joined together​; to result in; to lead to; to bring about​

無数 (musuu): innumerable; countless; numberless​

傾らか (nadaraka): gently sloping; gentle; easy​; smooth

長続き (nagatsuzuki): lasting long; continuation; keeping at (something); sticking to (something)​

嘆く (nageku): to lament; to grieve; to regret​; to deplore​

和やか (nagoyaka): mild; calm; gentle; quiet; congenial; amicable; amiable; friendly; genial; harmonious; peaceful​

内 (nai): (suffix) inside; within

内部 (naibu): interior; inside; internal​

内包 (naihou): connotation; comprehension; intension​; inclusion; containment within​

内線 (naisen): phone extension; indoor wiring; inner line​

中庭 (nakaniwa): courtyard; quadrangle; middle court​

生中継 (namachuukei): live broadcast (radio, TV); live coverage​

滑らか (nameraka): smooth (of a surface); glassy; velvety; soft​

何度も (nandomo): many times over; often​

軟弱 (nanjaku): weakness

何らか (nanraka): some; any; in any way; of some kind; of some sort​

慣れ (nare): practice; practising; experience​

成り立つ (naritatsu): to consist of; to be made up of; to be composed of​; to be concluded

成し遂げる (nashitogeru): to accomplish; to finish; to fulfill​

悩み (nayami): trouble; troubles; worry; distress; sorrows; anguish; agony; problem​

名づける (nazukeru): to name; to call; to christen; to term​

値上がり (neagari): price advance; increase in value​

値引き (nebiki): price reduction; discount​

根っこ (nekko): root (of a plant)​; stump (of a tree)​; root (of a problem, etc.); base; foundation; origin; source​

寝転がる (nekorogaru): to lie down; to throw oneself down

年度 (nendo): fiscal year (usu. April 1 to March 31 in Japan); financial year​; academic year; school year​

年金 (nenkin): annuity; pension​

年内 (nennai): by the end of the year​

狙う (nerau): to aim at​; to be after (something); to have an eye on​

熱する (nessuru): to heat up; to heat

根強い (nezuyoi): firmly rooted; deep-seated​

鈍い (nibui): dull (e.g. a knife); blunt​; thickheaded; obtuse; stupid​

日用品 (nichiyouhin): daily necessities​

濁る (nigoru): to become muddy; to become cloudy; to get impure (of a liquid, gas, etc.)​

日課 (nikka): daily lesson; daily work; daily routine​

憎い (nikui): hateful; abominable; poor-looking; detestable​

憎しみ (nikushimi): hatred

認識 (ninshiki): recognition; awareness; perception; understanding; knowledge; cognition; cognizance; cognisance​

偽物 (nisemono): spurious article; forgery; counterfeit; imitation; sham

日数 (nissuu): a number of days​

荷造り (nizukuri): packing; baling; crating​

乗り越える (norikoeru): to climb over; to get over; to ride across​; to overcome; to surpass; to overtake​

乗り継ぐ (noritsugu): to connect (with a different flight, train, etc.); to make a connection; to change (planes, trains, etc.)​

農園 (nouen): plantation

納品 (nouhin): delivery of goods​

濃厚 (nouko): rich (in flavor, color, smell, etc.); thick; dense; strong

能率 (nouritsu): efficiency

農作物 (nousakubutsu): crops; agricultural produce​

農薬 (nouyaku): agricultural chemical (i.e. pesticide, herbicide, fungicide, etc.); agrochemical; agrichemical​

覗く (nozoku): to peek (through a keyhole, gap, etc.)​; to sneak a look at; to take a quick look at​r

入会 (nyuukai): admission; joining; enrollment; enrolment​

入会金 (nyuukaikin): initiation fee; admission fee​

入金 (nyuukin): deposit; payment; money received; money due​

入居 (nyuukyo): moving into (house)​

入居者 (nyuukyosha): tenant (esp. residential tenant in apartment block); occupant; inhabitant; inmate​

入門 (nyuumon): entering an institution; beginning training​; primer; manual; introduction (to)​

乳製品 (nyuuseihin): dairy products​

覚え書き (oboegaki): memo; memorandum; note​

落ち込む (ochikomu): to feel down; to feel sad; to be depressed; to be in low spirits​; to be in a slump (business, economy, etc.); to be in an unfavourable condition​

驚き (odoroki): surprise; astonishment; wonder; amazement​

補う (oginau): to compensate for; to supplement​

追い返す (oikaesu): to drive away; to turn away; to send away; to repel; to repulse​

追い求める (oimotomeru): to pursue​

追い越す (oikosu): to pass (e.g. car); to overtake​; to surpass; to outstrip; to get ahead of; to outdistance​

追い抜く (oinuku): to pass (a car); to overtake; to surpass; to outstrip; to outdistance; to outsail

おかしな: ridiculous; odd

臆病 (okubyou): cowardly; timid; easily frightened​

屋外 (okugai): outdoors; alfresco​

遅れ (okure): delay; lag; postponement; falling behind​

奥底 (okusoko): depths; bottom (of one’s heart)​

思いがけない (omoigakenai): unexpected; contrary to expectations; by chance; casual​

思い返す (omoikaesu): to re-think; to think back upon; to change one’s mind

思い切り (omoikiri): with all one’s strength; with all one’s heart; to the utmost​; resolution; decisiveness​

思い込み (omoikomi): wrong impression; subjective impression; assumption; prejudice​

思い立つ (omoitatsu): to set one’s mind on doing; to get the idea of doing; to make up one’s mind​

思いつき (omoitsuki): plan; idea; suggestion​

思いつく (omoitsuku): to think of; to hit upon; to come into one’s mind; to be struck with an idea​; to remember; to recall​

思い浮かぶ (omoiukabu): to occur to; to remind of; to come to mind​

重苦しい (omokurushii): heavy; gloomy; awkward; cumbrous; oppressive; leaden​

重み (omomi): weight

お似合い (oniai): well-matched (esp. of a couple); becoming; suitable​

恩恵 (onkei): grace; favor; favour; blessing; benefit​

温厚 (onkou): gentle; mild-mannered​

音量 (onryou): volume (sound)​

大通り (oodoori): main street

大げさ (oogesa): grandiose; exaggerated​

大声 (oogoe): loud voice

大幅 (oohaba): big; large; drastic; substantial​

多く (ooku): many; much; largely; abundantly; mostly​

多目に (oome ni): plenty; lots

大手 (oote): major company; big company​

折り返し (orikaeshi): by return; (call or write back) without delay​

折り畳む (oritatamu): to fold up; to fold into layers​

収まる (osamaru): to fit into (a box, frame, category, etc.); to be contained within; to fall within (e.g. a budget)​

納める (osameru): to dedicate; to make an offering; to pay (fees)​

おしゃれ: smartly dressed; stylish; fashion-conscious​; someone smartly dressed​; to dress up; to be fashionable

惜しい (oshii): regrettable; disappointing; unfortunate​; precious; dear; valuable​

押し付ける (oshitsukeru): to press; to push; to force​; to foist on (task, responsibility); to impose (one’s will)​

教わる (osowaru): to be taught (by); to learn from​

お勧め (osusume): recommendation; advice; suggestion; encouragement​

お手本 (otehon): example; role model

お手数 (otesuu): trouble; bother​

お得 (otoku): economical; bargain; good value; good-value​

大人しい (otonashii): obedient; docile; quiet​

訪れる (otozureru): to visit; to call on​; to arrive; to come; to appear​

欧米 (oubei): Europe and America; the West​

応募者 (oubosha): applicant

応答 (outou): reply; answer; response​

親子 (oyako): parent and child​

および: and; as well as​

来日 (rainichi): arrival in Japan; coming to Japan; visit to Japan​

来学期 (raigakki): next semester

来場 (raijou): attendance

来場者 (raijousha): those attending​

来年度 (rainendo): next year; next fiscal year​

来店 (raiten): coming to a store (restaurant, bar, shop, etc.)​

来店者 (raitensha): visitor (to a shop or restaurant); customer (visiting a store or restaurant); patron​

楽観 (rakkan): optimism; taking an optimistic view​

欄 (ran): section (e.g. in a newspaper); column; page​; field (in a form, web page, etc.); blank​

乱暴 (ranbou): violence; assault; running riot​; rough (e.g. handling); reckless; careless; coarse; rude; unreasonable (e.g. demand); wild (e.g. argument)​

冷房 (reibou): cooling; air-conditioning​

例外 (reigai): exception

礼儀作法 (reigisahou): etiquette; courtesy​

冷水 (reisui): cold water​

恋愛 (ren’ai): love; love-making; passion; emotion; affections​

連休 (renkyuu): consecutive holidays​

理解力 (rikairyoku): (power of) understanding; comprehensive faculty​

理系 (rikei): science

陸上 (rikujou): (on) land; ground; shore

裏面 (rimen): back; reverse; other side; inside; tails (of coins); background​

臨時 (rinji): temporary; provisional; interim​; special; extraordinary; extra​

履歴書 (rirekisho): personal history; curriculum vitae; resume​

立食 (risshoku): stand-up meal; buffet​

利点 (riten): advantage; point in favor

論戦 (ronsen): verbal dispute​

労働力 (roudouryoku): labor; manpower; working force​

略す (ryakusu): to abbreviate; to omit; to abbreviate; to omit

力 (ryoku): (suffix) strength; power; proficiency; ability​

寮 (ryou): hostel; dormitory​

領域 (ryouiki): area; domain; territory; field; range; region; regime​

了解 (ryoukai): comprehension; consent; understanding; agreement​

緑茶 (ryokucha): green tea; Japanese tea​

両面 (ryoumen): both sides; two sides; double-sided​

両者 (ryousha): pair; the two; both persons; both things​

了承 (ryoushou): acknowledgement; acknowledgment; understanding (e.g. “please be understanding of the mess during our renovation”); noting; acceptance

両端 (ryoutan): both ends; either end; both edges​; double-mindedness; sitting on the fence​

流 (ryuu): (suffix) fashion; way; style; manner​; class; rank; rate​

定める (sadameru): to decide; to determine​; to establish; to lay down; to prescribe; to provide; to stipulate​; to bring peace (to); to make peaceful​

探る (saguru): to feel around for; to fumble for; to grope for; to search for; to look for​; to investigate; to probe into; to spy on; to sound out​

再 (sai): (prefix) re-; again; repeated; deutero-; deuto-; deuter-​

最悪 (saiaku): worst; horrible; horrid; awful; terrible​

栽培 (saibai): cultivation

最大 (saidai): biggest; greatest; largest; maximum

再度 (saido): twice; again; second time​

災害 (saigai): calamity; disaster; misfortune​

再発 (saihatsu): return; relapse; reoccurrence​

再開 (saikai): reopening; resumption; restarting​

細菌 (saikin): bacterium; bacteria; germ​

最高齢 (saikourei): oldest; most advanced age​

再生 (saisei): resuscitation; regeneration; restoration to life​; reformation; rehabilitation​; playback; regeneration (sound, etc.); view (of a video clip)​

最新 (saishin): latest; newest; late-breaking (news)​

最小限 (saishougen): minimum; lowest​

採集 (saishuu): collecting; gathering​

最終日 (saishuubi): last day; final day

最速 (saisoku): fastest

催促 (saisoku): pressing; urging; demanding; demand​

最低限 (saiteigen): minimum; at the very least​

最適 (saiteki): most suitable; optimum; optimal; best​

採用 (saiyou): use; adoption; acceptance​; appointment; employment; engagement; recruitment​

坂道 (sakamichi): hill road

遡る (sakanoboru): to go upstream; to go back (in time, to origin); to date back to; to trace back to; to make retroactive

先々 (sakizaki): distant future; inevitable future​; places one goes to​

早急 (sakkyuu): immediate; prompt; quick; rapid; urgent; pressing​

作成 (sakusei): drawing up (e.g. legal document, contract, will, etc.); preparing; writing; framing; making; producing; creating; creation

妨げる (samatageru): to disturb; to prevent; to obstruct; to hinder​

山頂 (sanchou): summit (of a mountain)​

参観 (sankan): visit; inspection​

参照 (sanshou): reference; bibliographical reference; consultation; browsing (e.g. when selecting a file to upload on a computer); checking out​

皿洗い (saraarai): washing-up; dish-washing​

さらさら: rustling; murmuring; fluently; silky; smooth and dry; free-flowing​

猿真似 (sarumane): indiscriminate imitation; monkey see, monkey do; blind follower

細やか (sasayaka): meagre; meager; modest

ささやく: to whisper; to murmur​​

差し出す (sashidasu): to present; to submit; to tender; to hold out​

差し引く (sashihiku): to deduct; to take away; to dock​; to make allowances for something; to bear something in mind

差し支える (sashitsukaeru): to interfere; to hinder; to become impeded​

さっさ: promptly; immediately; quickly; without delay​

早速 (sassoku): at once; immediately; without delay; promptly​

撮影 (satsuei): photography (still or motion); photographing; filming; shooting; (video) recording​

刺す (sasu): to pierce; to stab; to prick; to stick; to thrust​; to sting; to bite

さわやか: fresh; refreshing; invigorating​

狭める (sebameru): to narrow; to reduce; to contract​

接着 (secchaku): adhesion; glueing; gluing; bonding; binding; adhering; fastening​

設置 (secchi): establishment; institution​; installation (of a machine or equipment)​

制 (sei): (suffix) system; organization; organisation; imperial command; laws; regulation; control; government; suppression; restraint; holding back; establishment​

整備 (seibi): maintenance; servicing​; putting in place; establishment; development; preparation; provision; outfitting​

成分 (seibun): ingredient; component; composition​

声援 (seien): (shout of) encouragement; cheering; rooting; support​

精一杯 (seiippai): the best one can do; one’s best effort​; with all one’s might; to the best of one’s ability​

成果 (seika)​: (good) result; outcome; fruits (of one’s labors); product; accomplishment​

生計 (seikei): livelihood; living​

正門 (seimon): main gate; main entrance​

製作 (seisaku): manufacture; production​

制作 (seisaku): work (film, book)​; production; creation; turning (something) out; development​

政策 (seisaku): political measures; policy​

清算 (seisan): settlement (financial); squaring accounts; clearing debts​; liquidation; ending (a relationship); breaking up (with); burying (the past); redeeming (one’s faults)​

精神力 (seishinryoku): emotional strength; force of will​

性質 (seishitsu): nature; property; disposition​

清掃 (seisou): cleaning; clean-up; garbage collection; scavenging​

生得的 (seitokuteki): innate; inherent; natural; inborn​

生命力 (seimeiryoku): vitality; (one’s) life force​

性能 (seinou): ability; performance; efficiency​

成立 (seiritsu): formation; establishment; materialization; coming into existence​; conclusion (e.g. of a deal); approval; completion; arrangement​

生産者 (seisansha): manufacturer; producer​

政党 (seitou): political party​

設計者 (sekkeisha): designer

設計図 (sekkeizu): plan; blueprint​

説教 (sekkyou): remonstration; scolding; lecturing​

選抜 (senbatsu): selection; choice; picking out​

選別 (senbetsu): selection; classification; sorting; screening; triage​

先着 (senchaku): arriving first​

戦後 (sengo): postwar period; period after Second World War​

専業主婦 (sengyoushufu): housewife

選考 (senkou): selection; screening​

選挙 (senkyo): election

鮮明 (senmei): vivid; clear; distinct​

専門書 (senmonsho): technical book; specialized book; treatise​

専門店 (senmonten): specialist shop; shop specializing in a few types of product​

専念 (sennen): absorption; giving undivided attention; devoting oneself (to)​

洗練 (senren): polish; refinement​

線路 (senro): railway track; railway line; railroad; railway; track; line

戦略 (senryaku): strategy; tactics​

先先週 (sensenshuu): week before last​

洗濯機 (sentakuki): washing machine (laundry)​

洗剤 (senzai): detergent; cleanser; cleaning agent; washing material​

接する (sessuru): to touch; to come in contact with; to border on; to adjoin; to be adjacent; to be close​; to receive (e.g. visitor); to attend to; to serve; to take care of; to look after; to deal with; to see​

選出 (senshutsu): election; selection; choice​

選択肢 (sentakushi): choices; alternatives; options​

先端 (sentan): pointed end; tip; point; forefront; vanguard; spearhead; leading edge​

接続 (setsuzoku): connection; attachment; union; join; joint; link

専用 (sen’you): exclusive use; personal use; dedicated​

専属 (senzoku): exclusive; attached to; specialist​

背負う (seou): to carry on one’s back​; to be burdened with; to take responsibility for​

設定 (settei): establishment; creation; posing (a problem); setting (movie, novel, etc.); scene​; options setting; preference settings; configuration; setup

説得力 (settokuryoku): persuasiveness; powers of persuasion; cogency​

節電 (setsuden): conservation of electricity; brownout​

車内 (shanai): inside a train, car, etc.​

社内 (shanai): within a company; in-house​

車両 (sharyou): rolling stock; railroad cars; wheeled vehicles​

写生 (shasei): sketching; drawing from nature; portrayal; description​

写真家 (shashinka): photographer

車窓 (shasou): train window; car window​

仕上げる (shiageru): to finish up; to complete; to finish off; to get through; to polish off​

痺れる (shibireru): to become numb; to go to sleep (e.g. a limb)​; to get an electric shock; to tingle (from an electric shock)​; to be excited; to be titillated; to be mesmerized; to be enthralled

絞る (shiboru): to wring (towel, rag); to squeeze; to press; to extract; to milk; to extort; to exploit​

志望 (shibou): wish; desire; ambition​

脂肪 (shibou): fat; grease; blubber; lard; suet​

渋い (shibui): astringent; bitter; puckery; rough; harsh; tart​; austere; elegant (and unobtrusive); refined; quiet (and simple); sober; sombre; subdued; tasteful (in a quiet way); understated​; sour (look); glum; grim; sullen; sulky​

試着 (shichaku): trying on clothes​

市長 (shichou): mayor

支援 (shien): support; backing; aid; assistance​

志願 (shigan): aspiration; volunteering; desire; application​

志願者 (shigansha): applicant; candidate

仕草 (shigusa): gesture; movement; action; behavior; behaviour; bearing; mannerism​

指標 (shihyou): index; indices; indicator​

支持 (shiji): support; backing; endorsement; approval​

司会 (shikai): leading a meeting; presiding over a meeting; officiating at a ceremony; chairmanship​; chairman; presenter; host; moderator; master of ceremonies

視界 (shikai): field of vision; visibility; view; visual field; (one’s) ken​

資格 (shikaku): qualifications; requirements; capabilities​

視覚 (shikaku): sense of sight; vision​

思考 (shikou): thought; consideration; thinking​

思考力 (shikouryoku): ability to think​

試行錯誤 (shikousakugo): trial and error

仕組み (shikumi): structure; construction; arrangement; contrivance; mechanism; workings​; plan; plot; contrivance​

至急 (shikyuu): urgent; pressing; immediate; prompt; express​; urgently; promptly; at once; right away; without delay; as soon as possible​

氏名 (shimei): full name; identity​

使命 (shimei): mission; errand​; task; duty; obligation​

締め切る (shimekiru): to close up​; to shut up (e.g. behind doors)​; to cut off (e.g. because a deadline has expired); to close off (e.g. subscription list)​

湿っぽい (shimeppoi): damp; humid; wet​; gloomy; melancholy​

湿る (shimeru): to become damp; to become moist; to become wet​

染み付く (shimitsuku): to be indelibly stained or ingrained; to be dyed in deeply​

芯 (shin): wick; marrow; staple (for stapler); (pencil) lead; stuffing; pith​; core; heart; centre; center

新 (shin): (prefix) new; neo-​

新築 (shinchiku): new building; new construction​

振動 (shindou): oscillation; vibration; swing (e.g. of a pendulum)​

進化 (shinka): evolution; progress​

進行 (shinkou): moving forward (e.g. vehicle); onward movement​; advance (work, procedure, etc.); advancement; progress​

真の (shinno): true; real; genuine; proper; utter​

進入 (shinnyuu): entry; approach; penetration​

新設 (shinsetsu): establishing; founding; setting up; organizing; establishment​

進出 (shinshutsu): advance; stepping forward; emerging

深夜 (shin’ya): late at night​

信頼性 (shinraisei): credibility; authenticity; confidence; reliability​

素人 (shirouto): amateur; layman; ordinary person; novice

視力 (shiryoku): eyesight

新品 (shinpin): (brand-)new article​

申請 (shinsei): application; request; petition​

申請書 (shinseisho): written application​

視察 (shisatsu): inspection; observation​

施設 (shisetsu): institution; establishment; facility​

質素 (shisso): simple; plain​; modest; frugal; reserved​

下書き (shitagaki): draft; rough copy​

親しむ (shitashimu): to be intimate with; to befriend​

指摘 (shiteki): pointing out; identification​

視点 (shiten): opinion; point of view; visual point​

しわ: wrinkle; crease​; ripple

視野 (shiya): field of vision; view​; one’s outlook (e.g. on life); one’s horizons​

自然界 (shizenkai): nature; the natural world; realm of nature​

沈める (shizumeru): to sink; to submerge​; to floor (an opponent)​

諸 (sho): various; many; several​

初夏 (shoka): early summer

初回 (shokai): first time; first innings; initial attempt​

初期 (shoki): early (days); initial stage​; initial

食器類 (shokkirui): dinnerware; cutlery​

食 (shoku): (counter) meal

食費 (shokuhi): food expense​

職員 (shokuin): staff member; personnel​

職人 (shokunin): craftsman; artisan; tradesman; worker; workman​

食生活 (shokuseikatsu): eating habits​

初心者 (shoshinsha): beginner

初対面 (shotaimen)

書店 (shoten): bookshop; bookstore​

象徴 (shouchou): (abstract) symbol; emblem; representation

商業 (shougyou): commerce; trade; business​

勝敗 (shouhai): victory or defeat; issue (of battle); outcome​

賞品 (shouhin): prize; trophy

消費者 (shouhisha): consumer

生じる (shoujiru): to produce; to yield; to cause​; to result from; to arise; to be generated​

消化 (shouka): digestion (of food)​; digestion (of information); assimilation; thorough understanding​; consumption; absorption; using up; meeting (e.g. a quota); completion​

消極的 (shoukyokuteki): negative; passive; half-hearted; unmotivated​

照明 (shoumei): illumination; lighting​

正面 (shoumen): front; frontage; facade; main​

消耗 (shoumou): exhaustion; consumption; using up; dissipation; waste

小児科 (shounika): pediatrics

省略 (shouryaku): omission; abbreviation; abridgment; abridgement

詳細 (shousai): details; particulars; specifics​; detailed; specific; minute

少子化 (shoushika): declining birth rates; decrease in the number of children​

消失 (shoushitsu): dying out; disappearance; vanishing; elimination; loss; absence​

少数 (shousuu): minority; few​

焦点 (shouten): focus (e.g. photographic); focal point​

商店街 (shoutengai): shopping district; shopping street; downtown​

所有 (shoyuu): one’s possessions; ownership​

所属 (shozoku): belonging to (a group, organization, etc.); affiliation (with); being attached to; being under the control of​

主人公 (shujinkou): protagonist; main character; hero(ine) (of a story)​

主観 (shukan): subjectivity; subject (philosophical); ego​; one’s personal opinion; one’s own idea​

宿泊先 (shukuhakusaki): lodging place

祝日 (shukujitsu): national holiday; public holiday​

出版社 (shuppansha): publisher; publishing house; publishing company​

出発点 (shuppatsuten): starting point; point of departure​

主力 (shuryoku): main force; chief object; mainline​

主催 (shusai): sponsorship (i.e. conducting under one’s auspices); promotion; organizing; organising; hosting; staging​

出世 (shusse): success in life; getting ahead; successful career; promotion; climbing the corporate ladder; eminence​

出社 (shussha): going to work (e.g. in the morning); coming to work​

出身地 (shusshinchi): birthplace; native place​

出席者 (shussekisha): those present; attendance​

主体 (shutai): main constituent; core; nucleus​; subject (philosophical); protagonist​

取得 (shutoku): acquisition; obtaining; gaining possession; purchase​

出演 (shutsuen): performance; appearance (in a stage, film, TV show, etc.)​

出演者 (shutsuensha): performer; entertainer; actor​

集 (shuu): (suffix) collection; compilation​

修学旅行 (shuugakuryokou): excursion; field trip; school trip​

修業 (shuugyou): pursuit of knowledge; studying; learning; training; completing a course​

周辺 (shuuhen): circumference; outskirts; environs; around; in the area of; in the vicinity of​

周年 (shuunen): whole year; entire year​; -th year anniversary​

収納 (shuunou): storage; putting or stowing away​

秀才 (shuusai): bright person; talented student; prodigy​

就職活動 (shuushokukatsudou): job hunting; job searching​

収集 (shuushuu): collecting; accumulating; gathering​; collection (of art, stamps, insects, etc.)​

習得 (shuutoku): learning; acquisition (of a skill, knowledge, etc.)​

取材 (shuzai): news coverage; collecting data (e.g. for an article); covering (something for media)​

率直 (socchoku): frank; candid; straightforward; openhearted; direct; outspoken​

添える (soeru): to garnish; to accompany (as a card does a gift)​; to add to as support; to prop up​

側面 (sokumen): side; flank; profile; sidelight; lateral​; aspect; dimension​

速達 (sokutatsu): express; special delivery​

測定 (sokutei): measurement

即座に (sokuza): immediately; right away; on the spot​

染まる (somaru): to be dyed​; to be tainted; to be infected; to be stained; to be steeped​

そもそも: in the first place; to begin with; from the start; originally; ab initio

揃える (soroeru): to collect; to gather; to get together; to complete (a collection)​; to arrange; to put in order; to prepare; to get ready​

揃う (sorou): to be complete; to be all present; to make a full set; to be satisfied (of conditions)​; to gather; to assemble; to be collected​

そそっかしい: careless; thoughtless; hasty; rash​

素質 (soshitsu): character; qualities; genius; the makings of​

外側 (sotogawa): exterior; outside; outer; external; lateral​

添う (sou): to meet (wishes, expectations, etc.); to satisfy; to comply with; to live up to

沿う (sou): to run along; to run beside; to stick to (a line)​; to follow (a policy, plan, etc.); to act in accordance with; to align with​

総 (sou): (prefix): whole; all; general; gross; entire; overall​

送付 (soufu): sending (esp. email attachments); forwarding; remitting​

総額 (sougaku): sum total; total amount​

相互 (sougo): mutual; reciprocal​

総合 (sougou): synthesis; coordination; putting together; integration; composite​; comprehensive

相違 (soui): difference; discrepancy; variation​

倉庫 (souko): storehouse; warehouse; godown​

送客 (soukyaku): sending customers (somebody’s way)​

総務 (soumu): general affairs; general business; manager; director; adjutant general​

相応 (souou): suitable; appropriate; befitting; becoming; adequate; reasonable; proper​

創立 (souritsu): establishment; founding; organization; organisation​

送料 (souryou): postage; carriage; shipping charge​

創作 (sousaku): creation; production; creative work (novel, film, etc.); original work; (creative) writing​; fabrication; fiction; invention​

送信 (soushin): transmission; sending​

総数 (sousuu): total (number); count​

相対的 (soutaiteki): relative

そうとう: corresponding to (in meaning, function, etc.); being equivalent to​; appropriate; suitable; befitting; proportionate​

創造 (souzou): creation

騒々しい (souzoushii): noisy; loud; boisterous; clamorous; raucous​; turbulent; unsettled; restless​

素材 (sozai): ingredient; (raw) material; resource​; unprocessed timber; raw timber​

据える (sueru): to place (in position); to fix; to set (e.g. table); to lay (foundation)​; to install; to seat (someone); to settle (upon something); to fix (e.g. one’s gaze)​

水分 (suibun): water; liquid; fluid; moisture; humidity; sap; juice​

垂直 (suichoku): vertical

水平 (suihei): horizontal; level; even​

水面 (suimen): water’s surface​

推薦書 (suisensho): recommendation; nomination​

吸い取る (suitoru): to absorb; to squeeze (money)​

好き嫌い (sukikirai): likes and dislikes; pickiness (about food); choosiness; fussiness; tastes; preferences​

すっきり: refreshingly; with a feeling of relief; pleasantly; (a weight) off one’s shoulder​; shapely; neatly; cleanly; without trouble​

住まい (sumai): dwelling; house; residence; address​

済ます (sumasu): to finish; to get it over with; to conclude​; to settle; to pay back​

隅々 (sumizumi): nooks; corners​

素直 (sunao): obedient; meek; docile; unaffected​; honest; frank; upfront (about one’s feelings)​

すらすら: smoothly; easily; readily

数値 (suuchi): numerical value; numerics​; reading (on a meter, etc.)​

数分 (suufun): several minutes; a few minutes​

数量 (suuryou): quantity; volume; amount​

多 (ta): (prefix): multi-

束ねる (tabaneru): to tie up in a bundle (e.g. straw, hair, bills, letters); to bundle; to sheathe​; to govern; to manage; to control; to administer​

旅先 (tabisaki): destination; goal (of travel); place one stays during a journey​

立ち止まる (tachidomaru): to stop (in one’s tracks); to come to a stop; to halt; to pause; to stand still​

たちまち: in an instant; in a moment; immediately; right away; at once; suddenly; all of a sudden; all at once

多大 (tadai): great (quantity, amount, etc.); huge; enormous; serious​

辿り着く (tadoritsuku): to arrive at (after a struggle); to finally reach; to find one’s way to; to finally hit on (e.g. an idea)​

耐える (taeru): to bear; to stand; to endure; to put up with​; to support; to withstand; to resist; to brave​

多額 (tagaku): large (amount of money); huge; hefty; expensive

多発 (tahatsu): repeated occurrence​

対 (tai): opposite; opposition​; versus; vs.; v.​

大別 (taibetsu): general classification; broad categorization​

体調 (taichou): physical condition; state of health​

体外 (taigai): ectogenesis; outside the body​

対比 (taihi): contrast; comparison

体感 (taikan): bodily sensation; sense; experience​

退場 (taijou): exit (from a stage); leaving; exit​

体格 (taikaku): physique; constitution​

体型 (taikei): figure; body shape; build; physique; form​

体験 (taiken): personal experience; physical experience; one’s own experience​

対抗 (taikou): opposition; antagonism​

体内 (tainai): interior of the body​

対応 (taiou): correspondence (to); equivalence​

対立 (tairitsu): suitability; coordination; matching; being appropriate (for)​

対策 (taisaku): measure; provision; step; countermeasure; counterplan; countermove​

体制 (taisei): order; system; structure; set-up; organization; organisation​

対戦 (taisen): waging war; competition​

退社 (taisha): resignation; leaving office​; leaving work (e.g. at the end of the day)​

体質 (taishitsu): constitution (physical); physical make-up; predisposition (to disease); disposition; tendency​; character (of a group, organization, etc.); innate characteristics; make-up; nature; culture​

対処 (taisho): dealing with; coping with​

退職 (taishoku): retirement; resignation​

対象外 (taishougai): not covered (by); not subject (to)​

退出 (taishutsu): leaving (e.g. work at end of day); withdrawal (e.g. from a noble’s or superior’s presence); exit (e.g. from a market)​

大敵 (taiteki): great rival; powerful enemy; archenemy​

対等 (taitou): equality (esp. of status, on equal terms); equivalence​

高まる (takamaru): to rise; to swell; to be promoted​

高め (takame): high (e.g. ball in baseball); highish; on the high side​; on the expensive side; comparatively expensive

高める (takameru): to raise; to lift; to boost; to enhance​

滝 (taki): waterfall

宅配 (takuhai): home delivery​

宅配便 (takuhaibin): express home delivery service​

逞しい (takumashii): burly; strong; sturdy; indomitable; indefatigable; strong-willed; resolute; bold

蓄える (takuwaeru): to store; to save up; to stock up on; to lay in stock; to set aside​; to accumulate (e.g. knowledge); to build up (e.g. experience); to develop (e.g. one’s skills)​

たくましい: burly; strong; sturdy; indomitable; indefatigable; strong-willed; resolute; bold​

溜める (tameru): to amass; to accumulate; to store​; to leave unpaid​

保つ (tamotsu): to keep; to preserve; to hold; to retain; to maintain; to sustain​; to last; to endure; to keep well (food); to wear well; to be durable​

多難 (tanan): full of troubles, difficulties​

単調 (tanchou): monotony; monotone; dullness​

単純明快 (tanjunmeikai): simple and clear; plain and simple

短期間 (tankikan): short term; short time​

頼もしい (tanomoshii): reliable; trustworthy​; hopeful; promising​

単身 (tanshin): alone; unaided; away from home​

短縮 (tanshuku): shortening; contraction; reduction; curtailment; abbreviation​

担当者 (tantousha): person in charge (of an area of work); person responsible; contact (person)​

たっぷり: full; in plenty; ample​

多量 (taryou): large quantity; large amount​

多彩 (tasai): variegated; varicoloured; varicolored; multi-coloured; multi-colored; diverse​

他者 (tasha): another person; others​

多種多様 (tashutayou): a great variety of; diversity​

達成 (tassei): achievement; attainment; accomplishment; realization​

達成感 (tasseikan): sense of accomplishment​

多数 (tasuu): large number (of); many​; majority

畳む (tatamu): to fold (clothes, umbrella)​; to close (a shop, business)​

立て替える (tatekaeru): to pay for another; to pay someone else’s debt as a loan to him; to make temporary payment on a person’s behalf​

頼り (tayori): reliance; dependence​

多用 (tayou): busyness; a lot of things to do​; frequent use; heavy use (of); many uses​

多様 (tayou): diverse; varied

多様化 (tayouka): diversification

多様性 (tayousei): diversity; variety​

手が空く (te ga aku/te ga suku): to be free; to be available​

手に入れる (te ni ireru): to obtain; to procure​

手に付かない (te ni tsukanai): unable to concentrate on (due to distractions, etc.)​

手足 (teashi): hands and feet; limbs​

手早い (tebayai): nimble; quick; agile​

手帳 (techou): notebook; memo pad; (pocket) diary

手書き (tegaki): handwriting; handwritten; hand-painted; hand-drawn​

手軽 (tegaru): easy; simple; informal; offhand; cheap​

手頃 (tegoro): moderate; handy; convenient; reasonable​

定着 (teichaku): sticking (in one place, position, etc.); settling; fixing; adherence​; becoming established (of a custom, system, etc.); taking hold; taking root​

庭園 (teien): garden; park​

定員 (teiin): fixed number (of people); prescribed number (of regular personnel, students, etc.); quota; numerical limit; complement​

提示 (teiji): presentation; exhibit; suggest; citation​

定価 (teika): list price; regular price; established price​

低下 (teika): fall; decline; lowering; deterioration; degradation

低価格 (teikaku): low price

低気圧 (teikiatsu): low (atmospheric) pressure; low-pressure system; depression; cyclone​; bad temper; foul mood; tense situation​

低コスト (teikosuto): low cost

抵抗感 (teikoukan): antipathy; reluctance; resistance​

提供 (teikyou): offer; tender; providing; supplying; making available; donating (blood, organs, etc.)​; sponsoring (a TV program)​

定年 (teinen): retirement age​; years of service in a military rank before eligibility for promotion

手入れ (teire): care; looking after; repair; maintenance; tending; trimming; grooming​; (police) raid; crackdown​

停止 (teishi): stoppage; coming to a stop; halt; standstill​; ceasing (movement, activity, etc.); suspension (of operations); interruption (e.g. of electricity supply); cutting off​

的確 (tekikaku): precise; accurate; appropriate; exactly the right​

適性 (tekisei): aptitude; aptness; suitability​

手元 (temoto): at hand; on hand; nearby; close at hand​; way of moving one’s arms; skill​; money at hand; pocket money​

店長 (tenchou): shop manager​

展示 (tenji): exhibition; display​

転換 (tenkan): conversion; diversion; changeover; commutation; switchover​

点検 (tenken): inspection; examination; checking​

転勤 (tenkin): job transfer; job relocation; intra-company transfer​

転校 (tenkou): changing schools​

天候不順 (tenkoufujun): unseasonable weather; fickle weather; bad weather​

転校生 (tenkousei): transfer student; student changing schools​

添付 (tenpu): attaching (documents, etc.); appending; affixing​

手作業 (tesagyou): manual labor; manual procedures​

訂正 (teisei): correction; revision; amendment​

転職 (tenshoku): change of occupation; career change​

天才 (tenzai): genius; prodigy; natural gift​

手数料 (tesuuryou): handling charge; commission​

手続き (tetsuzuki): procedure; process; proceedings; formalities​

飛び散る (tobichiru): to fly around; to scatter​

飛び回る (tobimawaru): to fly about; to skip about; to bustle about​

乏しい (toboshii): meagre; meager; scarce; limited; destitute; hard up; lacking; scanty; poor​

問い合わせ (toiawase): enquiry; inquiry; query; interrogation

問い合わせる (toiawaseru): to enquire; to inquire; to seek information​

閉じこもる (tojikomoru): to seclude oneself; to shut oneself away​

問いかける (toikakeru): to ask a question​; to begin to ask a question​

溶かす (tokasu): to dissolve​; to melt

特効薬 (tokkouyaku): specific medicine; wonder drug; silver bullet

特色 (tokushoku): characteristic; feature; idiosyncrasy; personal color​

特殊 (tokushu): special; particular; peculiar; unique

特集 (tokushuu): feature (e.g. newspaper); special edition; report​

特定 (tokutei): specific; particular; designated; special​; specifying; designating; identifying; pinpointing​

得点 (tokuten): scoring; score; points made; marks obtained; goals; runs

共働き (tomobataraki): (husband and wife) both working; dual income​

伴う (tomonau): to accompany; to go hand in hand with; to be consequent upon; to be accompanied by; to bring with; to take with; to be involved in​

遠回り (toomawari): detour; roundabout way​

取扱 (toriatsukai): treatment; service; handling; management​

取り入れる (toriireru): to harvest; to reap​; to take in; to gather in​; to adopt (e.g. idea); to accept (e.g. advice); to introduce

取り組み (torikumi): bout (in sports, etc.); match; effort; initiative; dealing with; grappling with; wrestling with​

取り込む (torikomu): to take in; to bring in; to adopt (e.g. behaviour); to introduce; to win over; to please; to curry favour with; to flatter​

取り消し (torikeshi): cancellation; withdrawal; abolition; revocation; cancel

取り組む (torikumu): to grapple with; to wrestle with; to engage in a bout; to be matched against​; to tackle (e.g. a problem); to come to grips with; to work hard on​

取り除く (torinozoku): to remove; to deinstall; to take away; to set apart​

取り付く (toritsuku): to cling to; to hold on to; to hold fast to​; to set about doing; to begin; to commence; to undertake​

取り寄せる (toriyoseru): to order; to send away for; to have (something) sent to one​

都心 (toshin): city centre (center) (esp. capital city); urban centre; heart of city a metropolis​

年取る (toshitoru): to grow old; to age​

年上 (toshiue): older; senior​

整える (totonoeru)

整う (totonou): to be ready; to be prepared; to be arranged​; to be in order; to be put in order; to be well-ordered; to be well-proportioned; to be harmonious​; to be adjusted; to be regulated; to be refined (e.g. of a face)​

取っ手 (totte): handle; grip; knob​

逃亡 (toubou): escape; flight; running away; elopement; fleeing​

当分 (toubun): for the present; for the time being​

逃避 (touhi): escape; evasion; flight​

統一 (touitsu): unity; consolidation; uniformity; unification; compatible​

登場 (toujou): entry (on stage); appearance (on screen)​; entrance; introduction (into a market)​

統計 (toukei): statistics

陶器 (touki): porcelain (esp. soft-paste porcelain); china; chinaware; earthenware; pottery; ceramics; crockery​

登校 (toukou): attendance (at school); going to school​

透明 (toumei): transparent; clear​

登録 (touroku): registration; accession; register; entry; record​

討論 (touron): debate; discussion​

到達 (toutatsu): reaching; attaining; arrival​

到底 (toutei): by no means; not at all; (cannot) possibly; utterly; absolutely​

取り上げる (toriageru): to pick up​; to adopt (e.g. a proposal); to accept; to take up (a topic, complaint, etc.); to listen to; to deal with; to feature​

取り掛かる (torikakaru): to begin; to set about; to start​

取り戻す (torimodosu): to take back; to regain; to get back; to recover​

登山家 (tozanka): mountain climber; mountaineer​

潰す (tsubusu): to smash; to crush; to flatten​; to kill (time); to while away (the time)​

呟く (tsubuyaku): to mutter; to murmur; to grumble

追加 (tsuika): addition; supplement; appending; appendix​

追求 (tsuikyuu): pursuit (of a goal, ideal, etc.); search; chase; seeking after​

追及 (tsuikyuu): investigation (e.g. into someone’s guilt); questioning; pressing; hounding; pinning down​; catching up; overtaking​

使い分ける (tsukaiwakeru): to use properly; to use (different things) for different purposes​

付け加え (tsukekuwae): addition (to something)​

付け加える (tsukekuwaeru): to add (one thing to another); to add (a few more words, an explanation, etc.)​

作り上げる (tsukuriageru): to build up; to complete; to construct; to create; to invent; to cook up​

つまずく: to stumble; to trip; to fail

積み重なる (tsumikasanaru): to pile up; to stack up; to accumulate​

積み重ねる (tsumikasaneru): to pile up; to accumulate​

積む (tsumu): to pile up; to stack​; to load (car, ship, etc.); to pack​; to acquire; to accumulate​

繋がる (tsunagaru): to be tied together; to be connected to; to be linked to​; to lead to; to be related to

努める (tsutomeru): to endeavor (endeavour); to try; to strive; to make an effort; to exert oneself; to be diligent; to be committed (to doing something)​

通知 (tsuuchi): notice; notification; report; posting​

通常 (tsuujou): usual; ordinary; normal; regular; general; common​

通路 (tsuuro): passage; pathway; roadway; avenue; aisle​

通信販売 (tsuushinhanbai): mail order; mail-order sales; shop-by-mail service; on-line shopping service (with delivery by mail)​

通用 (tsuuyou): popular use; circulation​; to pass as; to pass for​

強火 (tsuyobi): high flame (cooking); high heat; strong heat​

強気 (tsuyoki): confident; assured; self-assured; firm; strong; cocksure

強める (tsuyomeru): to strengthen; to emphasize; to emphasise​

強み (tsuyomi): forte; strong point​

打ち明ける (uchiakeru): to confide; to reveal; to disclose; to lay bare; to speak frankly; to open (one’s heart)​

打ち合わせ (uchiawase): advance arrangements; preparatory meeting; briefing session​

内側 (uchigawa): inside; interior; inner part

打ち消す (uchikesu): to deny; to contradict​; to negate (esp. a sound); to drown out​

宇宙人 (uchuujin): space alien; alien; extraterrestrial being​

動き (ugoki): movement; move; motion​; trend; development; change; fluctuation​

浮かぶ (ukabu): to float; to be suspended​; to rise to surface​; to come to mind; to have inspiration​

受け入れる (ukeireru): to accept; to receive; to agree​

受け答え (ukekotae): reply; response; answer​

埋め込む (umekomu): to bury; to embed; to implant​

有無 (umu): existence or nonexistence; presence or absence​; consent or refusal; yes or no​

運が良い (un ga yoi): lucky

促す (unagasu): to urge; to encourage; to press; to prompt; to draw (attention to)​; to stimulate (e.g. growth); to hasten (e.g. development); to quicken; to accelerate; to promote​

うなずく: to nod; to bow one’s head in assent; to agree​

運賃 (unchin): (passenger) fare​; freight rates; shipping expenses​

運営 (un’ei): management; administration; operation​

運送 (unsou): transport; freight; shipping​

占う (uranau): to tell someone’s fortune; to forecast; to predict; to divine​

売れ行き (ureyuki): sales; demand​

売り上げ (uriage): amount sold; sales; proceeds; takings; turnover​

売り切れ (urikire): sold-out​

うろうろ: restlessly; aimlessly; without purpose

薄暗い (usugurai): dim; gloomy​

薄れる (usureru): to fade; to become dim​

雨天 (uten): rainy weather​

うとうと: falling into a doze; dozing off; nodding off​

うつむく: to hang one’s head; to look down; to cast one’s eyes downward​

移し替える (utsushikaeru): to shift something to; to move something into; to transfer; to transplant; to transpose; to exchange; to displace

映る (utsuru): to be reflected; to harmonize with (harmonise); to come out (photo); to be projected; to be displayed (on a screen)​

器 (utsuwa): bowl; vessel; container​; ability; capacity; calibre; caliber​

上回る (uwamawaru): to exceed (esp. figures: profits, unemployment rate, etc.); to surpass; to be more than; to be better than

和風 (wafuu): Japanese style​

わがまま: selfish; egoist; self-indulgent; wilful; willful​

分かれる (wakareru): to separate; to split; to divide​; to disperse; to scatter​

若々しい (wakawakashii): youthful; young; young-looking​

湧く (waku): to well (up); to gush forth (of water); to spring out; to surge​; to appear (esp. suddenly) (sweat, tears, etc.)​

枠組み (wakugumi): frame; framework; outline​

割り込む (warikomu): to cut into (a line, conversation, etc.); to force oneself into (e.g. a crowd); to wedge oneself into; to squeeze oneself into; to intrude on; to interrupt​

脇道 (wakimichi): side road; byroad

悪者 (warumono): bad fellow; rascal; ruffian; scoundrel​

和食 (washoku): Japanese food; Japanese-style meal; Japanese cuisine

忘れ去る (wasuresaru): to forget completely; to leave behind​

破れる (yabureru): to get torn; to tear; to rip; to break; to wear out​; to collapse; to fall into ruin​

敗れる (yabureru): to be defeated; to be beaten; to be unsuccessful; to lose​

喧しい (yakamashii): noisy; loud; clamorous; boisterous​; much talked of; much-discussed; vexed​

夜勤 (yakin): night shift​

薬品 (yakuhin): medicine; chemicals​

役目 (yakume): duty; role; function

約束事 (yakusokugoto): promise; vow; engagement​; convention; rule; resolution​

やむを得ない (yamu o enai): cannot be helped; unavoidable​

やり甲斐 (yarigai): being worth doing

養う (yashinau): to support; to maintain; to provide for​; to bring up; to raise; to rear; to feed​; to cultivate (a habit, a quality, etc.); to develop; to build up; to foster​

安値 (yasune): low price​

屋台 (yatai): cart (esp. a food cart); stall; stand

野党 (yatou): opposition party; political opposition; opposition​

呼びかける (yobikakeru): to call out to; to hail; to address​; to appeal​

呼び止める (yobitomeru): to challenge; to call somebody to halt​

予感 (yokan): presentiment; premonition; hunch​

欲求 (yokkyuu): desire; want; will; wish; urge; craving​

欲張り (yokubari): greed; avarice; covetousness; greedy person​

欲張る (yokubaru): to covet; to lust for​

読み込む (yomikomu): to read thoroughly; to read repeatedly​; to read (extra meaning) into (something)​

読み手 (yomite): reader (person)​

読み取る (yomitoru): to read and understand; to take in​; to sense from external cues; to read (someone’s) mind​

よっぽど: very; greatly; much; to a large extent; quite

寄り道 (yorimichi): dropping in on the way; stopping off at; making a side trip​; going the long way round; making a detour​

夜型 (yorugata): nocturnal (person)​

夜遅く (yoruosoku): late at night; at a late hour​

予選 (yosen): preliminary contest; qualifying round; trial; heat; primary​

寄せる (yoseru): to come near; to let someone approach​; to bring near; to bring together; to collect; to gather​; to press; to push; to force​

予定表 (yoteihyou): schedule; program; programme; itinerary​

幼稚 (youchi): infancy; childish; infantile; immature; primitive​

幼稚園 (youchien): kindergarten

用具 (yougu): tool; implement; instrument; equipment​

用品 (youhin): articles; supplies; parts​

要因 (youin): main cause; primary factor​

要件 (youken): important matter​; requirement; requisite; necessary condition; sine qua non​

用件 (youken): business; thing to be done; something that should be performed; information that should be conveyed​

容量 (youryou): capacity; volume​

養成 (yousei): training; education; development; cultivation​

容姿 (youshi): (physical) appearance (of a person); one’s face and figure​

要旨 (youshi): point; essentials; gist; summary; fundamentals​

様式 (youshiki): style; form; pattern​

要所 (yousho): important point; important position​

要するに (you suru ni)

用途 (youto): use; service; purpose​

弱気 (yowaki): timid; weak-kneed; fainthearted​

弱まる (yowamaru): to abate; to weaken; to be emaciated; to be dejected; to be perplexed​

弱々しい (yowayowashii): frail; slender; feminine​

夜空 (yozora): night sky​

指差す (yubisasu): to point at

油断 (yudan): negligence; carelessness; inattention; unpreparedness​

行方 (yukue): (one’s) whereabouts​

緩やか (yuruyaka): loose; slack​; gentle (slope, curve); slow (speed)​

ゆったり: comfortable; easy; calm; relaxed​; loose; spacious​

有害 (yuugai): harmful; hazardous

有限 (yuugen): finite; limited​

夕日 (yuuhi): evening sun; setting sun

有意義 (yuuigi): significant; useful; meaningful; worthwhile; valuable; of interest​

有人 (yuujin): manned; occupied; piloted

有給 (yuukyuu): salaried; with pay

有力 (yuuryoku): influential; prominent​; strong; likely; plausible; potent

有力者 (yuuryokusha): influential person; man of importance​

優良 (yuuryou): superior; excellent; fine​

優先 (yuusen): preference; priority; precedence​

郵送 (yuusou): mailing; posting​

憂鬱 (yuuutsu): depression; melancholy; dejection; gloom; despondency​

在学 (zaigaku): attending (school, college, etc.); being enrolled; being a student​

在籍 (zaiseki): being enrolled (at a school); being registered; being a member (of a team, organization, etc.)​

材質 (zaishitsu): material; material properties; quality of material​

残業代 (zangyoudai): overtime pay; overtime money; overtime payment​

雑草 (zassou): weed

雑談 (zatsudan): chatting; idle talk​

ざわざわ: noisily (e.g. from many people talking); creating a commotion​; rustling (leaves)​; feeling a chill; getting the chills​

税関 (zeikan): customs; customs house​

税込 (zeikomi): tax included (e.g. price); before tax (e.g. salary)

全額 (zengaku): total; full amount; sum​

前半 (zenhan): first half​

全面 (zenmen): whole surface; entire​

全般 (zenpan): (the) whole; entirety; wholly; as a whole; generally; universally​

前回 (zenkai): previous time; last time; previous installment; previous instalment; previous session​

全面的 (zenmenteki): total; complete; all-out; general; extensive; full-scale​

全力 (zenryoku): all one’s power (strength, energy, efforts); one’s utmost​

前提 (zentei): condition; assumption; prerequisite; hypothesis​

沿い (zoi): (suffix) along

続行 (zokkou): continuation; continuance; going on; resuming​

続出 (zokushutsu): appearing one after another; cropping up one after another; occurring in succession​

属する (zokusuru): to belong to; to come under; to be affiliated with; to be subject to​

続々 (zokuzoku): successively; one after another​

存分 (zonbun): to one’s heart’s content; as much as one wants​

増大 (zoudai): enlargement; increase​

増減 (zougen): increase and decrease; fluctuation​

図表 (zuhyou): chart; diagram; graph; figure​

漬け (zuke): (suffix) pickled in (something); preserved in; dipped in​

頭脳 (zunou): head; brains​

滑らす (zurasu): to shift; to slide (e.g. something away from something else); to move (e.g. something out of the way)​; to put off; to delay; to postpone; to stagger (e.g. working hours)​

図々しい (zuuzuushii): impudent; shameless; brazen; forward; audacious; cheeky​

This list is being updated.

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